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 Dentin bonding systems abstracts

1 Zhang LJ, Ma CF, Wang ZY. Related Articles, Links
  [Influence of eugenol-containing temporary cement on efficacy of dentin-bonding systems]
  Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004 May;39(3):230-2. Chinese.
  PMID: 15196394 [PubMed - in process]

2:Yap AU, Shah KC, Loh ET, Sim SS, Tan CC. Related Articles, Links
  Influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin.
  Oper Dent. 2001 Nov-Dec;26(6):556-61.
  PMID: 11699178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3:Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E. Related Articles, Links
  Influence of eugenol-containing temporary cement on efficacy of dentin-bonding systems.
  Eur J Oral Sci. 1999 Feb;107(1):65-9.
  PMID: 10102752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4:Ganss C, Jung M. Related Articles, Links
  Effect of eugenol-containing temporary cements on bond strength of composite to dentin.
  Oper Dent. 1998 Mar-Apr;23(2):55-62.
  PMID: 9573789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5:Al Qahtani MQ, Platt JA, Moore BK, Cochran MA. Related Articles, Links
  The effect on shear bond strength of rewetting dry dentin with two desensitizers.
  Oper Dent. 2003 May-Jun;28(3):287-96.
  PMID: 12760701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6:al-Wazzan KA, al-Harbi AA, Hammad IA. Related Articles, Links
  The effect of eugenol-containing temporary cement on the bond strength of two resin composite core materials to dentin.
  J Prosthodont. 1997 Mar;6(1):37-42.
  PMID: 9497767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7:Cobb DS, Denehy GE, Vargas MA. Related Articles, Links
  Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using single-bottle primer/adhesive systems.
  Am J Dent. 1999 Oct;12(5):222-6.
  PMID: 10649912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8:Yap AU, Tan AC, Goh AT, Goh DC, Chin KC. Related Articles, Links
  Effect of surface treatment and cement maturation on the bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomers to dentin.
  Oper Dent. 2003 Nov-Dec;28(6):728-33.
  PMID: 14653287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9:Erhardt MC, Cavalcante LM, Pimenta LA. Related Articles, Links
  Influence of phosphoric acid pretreatment on self-etching bond strengths.
  J Esthet Restor Dent. 2004;16(1):33-40; discussion 41.
  PMID: 15259541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10:Leirskar J, Nordbo H. Related Articles, Links
  The effect of zinc oxide-eugenol on the shear bond strength of a commonly used bonding system.
  Endod Dent Traumatol. 2000 Dec;16(6):265-8.
  PMID: 11202892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


 1 [Influence of eugenol-containing temporary cement on efficacy of dentin-bonding systems]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang LJ, Ma CF, Wang ZY.
Department of Prosthodontics, College of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of eugenol-containing temporary cement on the efficacy of
two relativelynew dentin-bonding systems.

METHODS: Thirty-two freshly extracted bovine central incisors were randomly divided into four groups. Dentin was exposed and polished with 320#, 400#, and 600# sand papers. After embedded, Group 3 and 4 specimens were covered with ZOE. Specimens in Group 1 and 2 were served as control. All specimens were stored for 1 week in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Then, the ZOE was mechanically removed. The dentin surfaces of Group 1 and 3 were treated with Prime & Bond NT bonding system and the dentin surfaces of Group 2 and 4 were treated with GLUMA adhesive system according to manufacturer's instructions. Thereafter composite resin columns (6 mm diameter, 2 mm high) were applied. After specimens stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, the shear bond testing was carried out using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The mode of failure was examined using SEM. The data were analyzed using ANOVA test at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The medians of shear bond strength for each group were as follows: Group 1 (Prime & Bond NT) 9.57 MPa, Group 3 (Prime & Bond NT + ZOE) 10.72 MPa, Group 2 (GLUMA) 16.89 MPa, Group 4 (GLUMA + ZOE) 16.78 MPa. Group 1 and 3 had significantly lower bonding strength than did Groups 2 and 4. But no significant difference was found between the control groups and the groups treated with ZOE temporary cement.

CONCLUSION: Pretreatment of the dentin with ZOE temporary cement has no adverse influence on the efficacy of two relatively new dentin-bonding systems.


2  Influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin.

Yap AU, Shah KC, Loh ET, Sim SS, Tan CC.
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Centre for Biomedical Materials Applications and Technology,
Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

This study investigated the influence of eugenol-containing temporary restorations on bond strength of composite to dentin. Thirty-two freshly extracted human molars were embedded and horizontally sectioned at a level 2 mm from the central fossa to obtain a flat dentin surface. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of eight teeth. Specimens in Group 1 (control) received no pre-treatment with any temporary restorations. Group 2 and 3 specimens were covered with IRM (eugenol-containing) mixed at powder: liquid (P:L) ratio of 10 g: 1 g and 10 g: 2 g, respectively. Specimens in Group 4 were covered with polycarboxylate cement (eugenol-free) mixed at a P:L ratio of 2.85 g: 1 g. The temporary restorations were mechanically removed with an ultrasonic scaler after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The dentin surfaces were cleaned with pumice-water slurry and treated with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus bonding system according to manufacturer's instructions. Composite (Z100) columns (3 mm diameter, 2 mm high) were applied and shear bond testing was carried out after 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C using an Instron Universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The mode of failure was examined using a stereomicroscope at X40 magnification.

Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffes's post-hoc test at significance level 0.05. Ranking of bond strengths was as follows: Group 1 (22.58 MPa) > Group 2 (21.14 MPa) > Group 4 (15.35 MPa) > Group 3 (13.02 MPa). Group 3 had significantly lower bond strength than Groups 1 and 2. No significant difference in dentin bond strength was observed between the Group 1 (control) and Groups 2 and 4. Although the predominant mode of failure for Groups 1, 2 and 4 was cohesive in dentin, all specimens in Group 3 exhibited adhesive failure. Pre-treatment with polycarboxylate cement or IRM mixed at P:L ratio of 10 g: 1 g did not affect shear bond strength of composite to dentin. IRM mixed at a lower P:L ratio of 10 g: 2 g significantly decreased bond strength.


3 Influence of eugenol-containing temporary cement on efficacy of dentin-bonding systems.

Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E.
Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
apz@odont.ku.dk

Zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cements are widely used as temporary filling materials. However, eugenol has earlier been shown to have a detrimental effect on both resin composites and dentin-bonding systems. The aim of the present in vitro study was to examine whether ZOE cement would also reduce the efficacy of relatively new dentin-bonding systems. This was done by determination of gap formation around resin composite fillings in dentin cavities and of bond strength of resin composite to enamel and dentin. The tooth surfaces involved were either freshly cut, or had been exposed to a ZOE cement (IRM) or to a non-ZOE cement (Cavit) for 7 d before application of a dentin-bonding system (Gluma CPS or Scotchbond Multi- Purpose Plus) and a resin composite (Z100). Gap formation was assessed in a light microscope on 20-min-old fillings and expressed as wall-to-wall contraction (the width of the maximum marginal gap in % of the cavity diameter). Bond strength was measured in shear on 1-d-old specimens. The mean values of wall-to-wall contraction were 0.06-0.09% with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 0.20-0.24% with Gluma CPS. The mean values of bond strength to enamel were 22-25 MPa for Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 20-23 MPa for Gluma CPS, and to dentin were 20-22 MPa for Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 13-14 MPa for Gluma CPS. The use of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus resulted in higher bond strength to dentin and less wall-to-wall contraction than did Gluma CPS. No differences were found in either wall-to-wall contraction or in bond strength between the three groups for either dentin-bonding system. Thus, the ZOE cement did not influence the efficacy of two relatively new dentin-bonding systems.


4  Effect of eugenol-containing temporary cements on bond strength of composite to dentin.

Ganss C, Jung M.
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Germany.

The effect of temporary materials on shear bond strength of composite to dentin was investigated. Sixty previously impacted (caries-free) human third molars were embedded and sectioned horizontally at the pulp chamber and at the half of the crown. The samples were covered with ZOE, Temp Bond (eugenol-containing), Fermit, (temporary resin material, used without cementing) and Provicol, (eugenol-free, calcium hydroxide-containing). All specimens were stored in saline for 10 days. After mechanical cleaning the dentin was pretreated with a dentin bonding agent (Syntac), and the composite columns were applied. Debonding was performed using a Zwick Universal Testing Machine (cross-head speed 1.5 mm/min). The mode of failure was noted using a light microscope, and the thickness of the dentin at the composite/dentin interface was measured. The median shear bond strength values for the treated and control samples were: ZOE 7.46 MPa, Temp Bond 10.22 MPa, Fermit 6.49 MPa, Provicol 8.43 MPa, and control 10.06 MPa. No two groups were significantly different at the 0.05 level (one-way ANOVA and Scheffé test). In all groups the predominant mode of failure was adhesive and there was a slight tendency towards lower shear bond strength values at lower values for the thickness of the dentin. Under the conditions described the use of eugenol-containing temporary cements had no adverse effect on shear bond strength of a dual-curing composite luting cement to dentin.



5 The effect on shear bond strength of rewetting dry dentin with two desensitizers.

Al Qahtani MQ, Platt JA, Moore BK, Cochran MA.
Department of Restorative Dental Science, King Saud University, College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. mqahtani@mail.com

The difficulty related to achieving a balance between wet and dry dentin makes the dentin bonding technique extremely sensitive. This study evaluated the effect of rewetting dried dentin with two commercial desensitizing agents (Protect and HurriSeal) on the dentin shear bond strength of three total-etch dentin bonding agents (Syntac Single-Component, OptiBond Solo Plus and Prime & Bond NT) and compared both to applying these same bonding agents to moist dentin and dry dentin. Each bonding agent was paired with an appropriate resin composite from the same manufacturer (Table 1). Recently extracted, formalin-treated caries-free human molars were used. The occlusal surface of each tooth was ground to create a flat dentin surface. Then, each tooth was mounted in acrylic. Twelve groups (n = 15) were prepared:

1) Syntac Single-Component with Heliomolar resin composite (SSC/H) to moist dentin;
2) SSC/H to dry dentin;
3) SSC/H to dried dentin rewet with Protect;
4) SSC/H to dried dentin rewet with HurriSeal;
5) OptiBond Solo Plus with Point 4 resin composite (OBS+/P4) to moist dentin;
6) OBS+/P4 to dry dentin;
7) OBS+/P4 to dried dentin rewet with Protect;
8) OBS+/P4 to dried dentin rewet with HurriSeal;
9) Prime & Bond NT with TPH Spectrum resin composite (PBNT/TPH) to moist dentin;
10) PBNT/TPH to dry dentin;
11) PBNT/THP to dried dentin rewet with Protect and
12) PBNT/TPH to dried dentin rewet with HurriSeal.

Groups 1, 5 and 9 were placed according to manufacturers' instructions (moist dentin) as control groups. All the other groups received a 15-second air blast after etching and prior to applying the one bottle adhesive or desensitizer and one bottle adhesive.Resin composite cylinders [4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height] were then placed. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours prior to thermocycling 2,500 times (at 8 degrees C and 48 degrees C). Shear bond strengths (SBSs) were measured one week after fabrication by using a circular knife-edge and crosshead speeds of 0.5 mm/minute. Failure modes of debonded specimens were determined under a stereomicroscope (30x). Failed specimens with the low and high shear bond strengths in each group were evaluated under a low vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-LV). One-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used to compare the different conditions for each bonding system. In the Syntac Single-Component bonding agent groups, there was no significant difference in shear bond strength between the control (15.73 MPa), dry (18.11 MPa) and HurriSeal (16.18 MPa) specimens. Protect specimens showed significantly lower shear bond strength (6.39 MPa). In the OptiBond Solo Plus bonding agent groups, there was no significant difference between the control (20.79 MPa) and the HurriSeal (21.29 MPa) groups, and both groups had significantly greater bonds than the dry (14.13MPa) and Protect (9.57 MPa) groups. In the Prime & Bond NT bonding agent groups, the shear bond strength of the HurriSeal group (20.73 MPa) was significantly higher than the other groups: control (8.05 MPa), dry (5.73 MPa) and Protect (5.45 MPa).



6 The effect of eugenol-containing temporary cement on the bond strength of two resin composite core materials to
dentin.

al-Wazzan KA, al-Harbi AA, Hammad IA.
Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of eugenol-containing temporary cement on the bond strength of two resin composite core materials (FluoroCore and Ti-Core) to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin was exposed in three groups of extracted teeth (20 specimens each). In group one, dentin was covered with eugenol-containing temporary cement; the second group was covered with eugenol-free temporary cement; and the third group was left uncovered and served as a control group. All specimens were stored for 1 week at 37 degrees C and 100% humidity. The dentin surfaces were cleaned and treated using the GLUMA adhesive system, followed by placement of composite core build-ups. Debonding of the core material was accomplished using the Accuforce Elite test system. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in bond strength for the specimens covered with eugenol temporary cement (p < .0001), but no significant difference was found between the control group and the group treated with eugenol-free temporary cement. Bond strength of the Ti-Core material to dentin was significantly higher than that of FluoroCore (p < .0001). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment of the dentin with eugenol-based temporary cement adversely affects the bond strength of resin composite core material to dentin.


7 Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using single-bottle primer/adhesive systems.

Cobb DS, Denehy GE, Vargas MA.
Department of Operative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA. deborah-cobb@uiowa.edu

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of a spherical amalgam alloy (Tytin) to dentin using several single-bottle primer/adhesive systems both alone: Single Bond (SB), OptiBond Solo (Sol), Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB), One-Step (OS) and in combination with the manufacturer's supplemental amalgam bonding agent: Single Bond w/3M RelyX ARC (SBX) and Prime & Bond 2.1 w/Amalgam Bonding Accessory Kit (PBA). Two, three-component adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus w/light curing (S + V) and w/o light curing (S+) were used for comparison.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eight extracted human third molars were mounted lengthwise in phenolic rings with acrylic resin. The proximal surfaces were ground to expose a flat dentin surface, then polished to 600 grit silicon carbide paper. The teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 12), and dentin surfaces in each group were treated with an adhesive system according to the manufacturer's instructions, except for S + V specimens, where the adhesive was light cured for 10 s before placing the amalgam. Specimens were then secured in a split Teflon mold, having a 3 mm diameter opening and amalgam was triturated and condensed onto the treated dentin surfaces. Twenty minutes after condensation, the split mold was separated. Specimens were placed in distilled water for 24 hrs, then thermocycled (300 cycles, between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with 12 s dwell time). All specimens were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 7 days, prior to shear strength testing using a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min.

RESULTS: The highest to the lowest mean dentin shear bond strength values (MPa) for the adhesive systems tested were: S + V (10.3 +/- 2.3), SBX (10.2 +/- 3.5), PBA, (6.4 +/- 3.6), SOL (5.8 +/- 2.5), SBMP (5.7 +/- 1.8), S+ (4.8 +/- 2.3), PB (2.7 +/- 2.6), SB (2.7 +/- 1.1) and OS (2.5 +/- 1.8). One-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences among groups. SBX and S + V produced significantly higher amalgam to dentin shear bond strengths than all other adhesive systems. Bond strengths of amalgam to dentin for the single-bottle adhesives, SOL and PBA were comparable to the three-component systems, SBMP and S+ and were significantly greater than OS, SB and PB (P < 0.05).



8 Effect of surface treatment and cement maturation on the bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomers to dentin.

This study investigated the effect of surface treatment and cement maturation on the bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) to dentin. Forty-two freshly extracted premolars were embedded and horizontally sectioned at a level 2 mm from the central fossa to obtain a flat dentin surface. The premolars were randomly divided into three groups of 14 teeth and treated as follows: Group 1 (control)--no surface treatment, Group 2-- conditioned with 20% polyacrylic acid for 10 seconds and Group 3--etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. RMGIC (Fuji II LC, GC) columns (3 mm diameter; 2 mm high) were applied to the dentin surface and shear bond testing was carried out after one week (n = 7) and one month (n = 7) storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C using an Instron Universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 0.6 mm/minute. The failure mode was examined at 40x magnification and scored with imaging software. The results were analyzed using ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test and Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney test at a significance level of 0.05. The effect of surface treatment on shear bond strength to dentin was time dependent. Mean strengths ranged from 3.16 to 5.81 MPa at one week and 5.00 to 14.95 MPa at one month. Although no significant difference in strengths was observed among the groups at one week, significant differences (Group 2 > Group 1 > Group 3) were detected at one month. At one month, conditioned and untreated specimens exhibited significantly less adhesive failure than etched specimens.



9  Influence of phosphoric acid pretreatment on self-etching bond strengths.

Erhardt MC, Cavalcante LM, Pimenta LA.
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of phosphoric acid pretreatment on shear bond strength of two self-etching bonding systems to enamel and dentin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight extracted third human molar teeth were mounted, embedded into polystyrene resin, polished with 600-grit aluminum oxide papers, and randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): group 1- Clearfil Liner Bond 2V (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan); group 2-One Up Bond F (Tokuyama Corp., Tokyo, Japan); group 3- phosphoric acid (Condicionador Dental Gel, Dentsply Ind. Com. LTDA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and Clearfil Liner Bond 2V; group 4-phosphoric acid and One Up Bond F. In groups 3 and 4 the substrate was pre-etched for 15 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid, rinsed, and dried with an air stream. In all groups adhesive systems were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and light cured; then a restorative composite resin (TPH Spectrum, Dentsply Ind. Com. LTDA) was placed in a polytef matrix and cured. The specimens were stored in humidity for 7 days at 37 degrees C. The shear bond strength test was performed in a universal test machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. All procedures were repeated for the dentin evaluation. Mean values were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Duncan tests (p < .05). RESULTS: The values obtained are listed in decreasing order: enamel-group 3 = 24.6 MPa, group 4 = 23.6 MPa, group 1 = 19.2 MPa, group 2 = 8.5 MPa; dentin-group 1 = 17.2 MPa, group 2 = 16.1 MPa, group 4 = 13.1 MPa, group 3 = 11.3 MPa. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, enamel etching with 37% phosphoric acid provided statistically significant higher shear bond strength values, regardless of the adhesive system. However, in dentin, for Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, phosphoric acid pretreatment negatively affected bond strength values.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of self-etching systems in composite-to-enamel bonding restorative techniques still needs improvement when compared with the high bond strengths obtained with phosphoric acid treatment. However, lower shear bond strengths were observed in dentin when phosphoric acid was used in association with either adhesive system.



10 The effect of zinc oxide-eugenol on the shear bond strength of a commonly used bonding system.

Leirskar J, Nordbø H.
Department of Cardiology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. jakoble@odont.uio.no

It has been claimed that eugenol has a detrimental effect on resin composites and dentin bonding systems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement would reduce the efficacy of a bonding system. Human third molars were selected for the study, and cylindrical posts of a resin composite (Z100) were bonded vertically to a standardized flat dentinal surface, prepared on the buccal surface of the teeth and treated with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. The tooth surfaces involved were either freshly cut, or had been exposed to ZOE cement for 6 days, with and without a subsequent thorough cleansing with ethanol. The bond strength in shear was measured after 24 hours. The results showed that ZOE cement had no negative effect on the bond strength of the resin composite (Z100) to dentin when this bonding system was used. The mean shear bond value for the specimens covered with ZOE cement for 6 days was 28.1 MPa. For specimens covered with ZOE cement and cleansed with 96% ethanol, the mean shear bond value was 23.5 MPa. The corresponding value for the controls was 19.0 MPa. These findings suggested that eugenol-containing temporary filling materials may be used safely prior to inserting resin based restorative materials, when Scotchbond Multi-Purpose is employed as the bonding agent.