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Abstract 25

1 Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of a new porous surface for titanium implants 2 Experimental infective endocarditis induced by human supragingival dental plaque in rats 3 Tissue alterations at implant-supported single-tooth replacements: a 1-year prospective clinical study 4 Dental implants placed in expanded narrow edentulous ridges with the Extension Crest® device . A 13-year multicenter follow-up study 5 Comparison of bacterial plaque samples from titanium implant and tooth surfaces by different methods 6 Comparisons of bacterial patterns present at implant and tooth sites in subjects on supportive periodontal therapy

Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of a new porous surface for titanium implants

European Journal Of Oral Sciences
Volume 113 Issue 6 Page 537 - December 2005
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0722.2005.00247.x
Volume 113 Issue 6

Michael Simon1, Christelle Lagneau1, José Moreno2, Michele Lissac1,
Francis Dalard3, Brigitte Grosgogeat1
Simon M, Lagneau C, Moreno J, Lissac M, Dalard F, Grosgogeat B.

Eur J Oral Sci 2005; 113: 537–545.© Eur J Oral Sci, 2005

Alterations of the commercially pure titanium (cpTi) surface may be undertaken to improve its biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of cpTi when submitted to a new, porous titanium, surface treatment (porous Ti). Five types of surface treatments, namely sintered microspheres porous titanium (porous Ti), titanium plasma spray (TPS), hydroxyapatite (HA), sandblasted and acid etched (SBAE), and resorbable blast medium, sandblasted with hydroxyapatite (RBM) were made. In the experimental methods, the corrosion potentials were measured over time, and then a linear sweep voltammetric analysis measured the polarization resistances and corrosion currents. For biocompatibility evaluation, MG63 osteoblast-like cells were used. Cell morphology, cell proliferation, total protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were evaluated after 2 h, and after 2, 4 and 7 d. Porous Ti and SBAE showed a better corrosion resistance, with a weak corrosion current and a high polarization resistance, than the other surfaces. Cell attachment, cell morphology, cell proliferation, and ALP synthesis were influenced by the surface treatments, with a significant increase observed of the activity of osteoblast cells on the porous coating (porous Ti). Based on these results, it is suggested that the porous Ti surface has a significantly better biocompatibility than the other surface treatments and an excellent electrochemical performance.

Experimental infective endocarditis induced by human supragingival dental plaque in rats

European Journal Of Oral Sciences
Volume 113 Issue 6 Page 499 - December 2005
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0722.2005.00258.x
Volume 113 Issue 6

Emi Nagata1, Hidehito Okayama1, Hiro-O Ito1, Ichiro Semba2, Masakazu Inoue1, Takahiko Oho1 Nagata E, Okayama H, Ito H-O, Semba I, Inoue M, Oho T.

Experimental infective endocarditis induced by human supragingival dental plaque in rats. Eur J Oral Sci 2005; 113: 499–504. © Eur J Oral Sci, 2005 Human dental plaque is thought to contribute to disease, not only in the oral cavity but also at other body sites. To investigate the pathogenicity of dental plaque in tissues remote from the mouth, we examined the ability of human supragingival dental plaque to induce infective endocarditis (IE) in rats. In total, 15 out of 27 catheterized rats survived after intravenous injections with human supragingival dental plaque suspensions containing 3 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU) of bacterial cells. In surviving rats, infected vegetations were formed in all except one rat. The microbial composition of the infected vegetations was different from that of the respective dental plaque inocula, with Streptococcus oralis comprising the majority of the isolates. In rats affected with endocarditis, the aortic sinus was filled with fibrinous vegetation containing bacteria. Inflammatory cells infiltrated the aortic valve, the aorta adjacent to the valve, and the cardiac muscles. The inoculation of catheterized rats with a cell suspension of S. oralis isolate (5 × 106 CFU) was not lethal but capable of inducing endocarditis in all animals. The results suggest that if dental plaque were introduced into the bloodstream, it could serve as a potent source of bacteria causing IE in humans.

Tissue alterations at implant-supported single-tooth replacements: a 1-year prospective clinical study

Clinical Oral Implants Research
Online Early
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01210.x
Volume 0 Issue 0
Giuseppe Cardaropoli1, Ulf Lekholm2 and Jan L. Wennström1

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate dimensional alterations of the peri-implant tissues at single-tooth restorations from the time of implant placement to 1-year post-loading.

Material and methods: Eleven patients, aged 18 - 36 years, subjected to single-tooth replacements with implant-supported restorations (Brånemark implant® system) in the maxillary anterior region were included in the analysis. The implant installation was performed as a two-stage procedure with a 6-month healing interval. Bone dimensions were determined by direct assessments immediately following implant placement and at abutment connection. The prosthetic restoration was placed approximately 1 month after abutment surgery. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed at crown placement and at 1-year post-loading. Assessments of the soft tissues at the implant site and at the neighboring teeth were performed before and during implant placement, before abutment connection, after crown placement and at the 1-year follow-up examination. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated for each variable and interval, with the subject as the statistical unit.

Results: At the time of abutment connection, a mean loss of bone height at the facial and lingual aspect of the implant amounting to 0.7–1.3 mm (P<0.05) was recorded, whereas no significant change was noted at proximal sites. A mean reduction of 0.4 mm of the labial bone thickness was observed between implant placement and the second-stage surgery. The radiographic bone-to-implant level showed a mean loss of 0.9 mm between abutment connection and crown placement (P<0.05) and a further 0.7 mm loss at 1 year (P<0.05). The thickness of the labial mucosa was increased at crown placement followed by a slight remission at 1 year. During the corresponding interval, a mean apical displacement of the labial soft tissue margin of 0.6 mm had taken place (P<0.05). A papilla fill of =50% was observed at a frequency of 32% at crown placement and 86% at 1 year.

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that following implant surgery remodeling takes place, which is manifested in diminished bone dimensions, both horizontally and vertically, at the facial aspect of the implant. The observed soft tissue alterations after the crown placement may affect the esthetic appeal of the restorative therapy.

To cite this article: Cardaropoli G, Lekholm U, Wennström JL. Tissue alterations at implant-supported single-tooth replacements: a 1-year prospective clinical study. Clin. Oral Impl. Res.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01210.x

Dental implants placed in expanded narrow edentulous ridges with the Extension Crest® device . A 13-year multicenter follow-up study Clinical Oral Implants Research
Online Early
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01196.x
Volume 0 Issue 0
Matteo Chiapasco1, Francesco Ferrini2, Paolo Casentini3, Stefano Accardi1 and Marco Zaniboni1

Abstract

Objective: This study has been designed to evaluate the capability of a new surgical device (Extension Crest®) to widen narrow edentulous alveolar ridges and to allow a correct placement of endosseous implants in horizontally atrophied sites.

Material and methods: Forty-five patients, 20 males and 25 females, aged 20–66 years, affected by edentulism associated to horizontal resorption of the ridges, were treated by means of a sagittal osteotomy and expansion of the ridge with a new surgical device (Extension Crest®) to obtain a wider bony base for ideal implant placement. In the same procedure in 33 patients, and 1 week afterwards in 12 patients, 110 endosseous titanium implants (ITI TE®) were placed. Three to four months later, the patients were rehabilitated with implant-supported prostheses.

Results: The success rate of the expansion technique was 97.8%. A total of 110 implants were inserted in the expanded ridges. The mean follow-up after the start of prosthetic loading was 20.4 months. Three implants were removed before the start of prosthetic loading, because of non-integration, while no other implants failed after the completion of the prosthetic rehabilitation. Three implants, although integrated and in function, did not fulfill success criteria: cumulative success and survival rates at the end of the observation period were 95.4% and 97.3%, respectively.

Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, this technique appeared to be reliable and simple, with reduction of morbidity and times of dental rehabilitation as compared with other techniques such as autogenous bone grafts and guided bone regeneration. Survival and success rates of implants placed in the treated areas are consistent with those placed in native bone.

To cite this article:

Chiapasco M, Ferrini F, Casentini P, Accardi S, Zaniboni M. Dental implants placed in expanded narrow edentulous ridges with the Extension Crest® device. A 1–3-year multicenter follow-up study.
Clin. Oral Impl. Res. xx, 2005; 000–000.

Comparison of bacterial plaque samples from titanium implant and tooth surfaces by different methods Clinical Oral Implants Research
Online Early
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01197.x
Volume 0 Issue 0
Jeanne Gerber1, Doris Wenaweser1, Lisa Heitz-Mayfield1, Niklaus P. Lang1 and G. Rutger Persson1,2

Abstract:

Studies have shown similarities in the microflora between titanium implants or tooth sites when samples are taken by gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) sampling methods. The purpose of the present study was to study the microflora from curette and GCF samples using the checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization method to assess the microflora of patients who had at least one oral osseo-integrated implant and who were otherwise dentate. Plaque samples were taken from tooth/implant surfaces and from sulcular gingival surfaces with curettes, and from gingival fluid using filter papers. A total of 28 subjects (11 females) were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 64.1 years (SD±4.7). On average, the implants studied had been in function for 3.7 years (SD±2.9). The proportion of Streptococcus oralis (P<0.02) and Fusobacterium periodonticum (P<0.02) was significantly higher at tooth sites (curette samples). The GCF samples yielded higher proportions for 28/40 species studies (P-values varying between 0.05 and 0.001). The proportions of Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola were both higher in GCF samples (P<0.02 and P<0.05, respectively) than in curette samples (implant sites). The microbial composition in gingival fluid from samples taken at implant sites differed partly from that of curette samples taken from implant surfaces or from sulcular soft tissues, providing higher counts for most bacteria studied at implant surfaces, but with the exception of Porphyromonas gingivalis. A combination of GCF and curette sampling methods might be the most representative sample method.

To cite this article:

Gerber J, Wenaweser D, Heitz-Mayfield L, Lang NP, Persson RG. Comparison of bacterial plaque samples from titanium implant and tooth surfaces by different methods.
Clin. Oral Impl. Res.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01197.x

Comparisons of bacterial patterns present at implant and tooth sites in subjects on supportive periodontal therapy Clinical Oral Implants Research
Online Early
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01190.x
Volume 0 Issue 0

I. Impact of clinical variables, gender and smoking
Mette R. Agerbaek1, Niklaus P. Lang1 and G. Rutger Persson1,2

Abstract

Objective: (I) To compare the oral microflora at implant and tooth sites in subjects participating in a periodontal recall program, (II) to test whether the microflora at implant and tooth sites differ as an effect of gingival bleeding (bleeding on probing (BOP)), or pocket probing depth (PPD), and (III) to test whether smoking and gender had an impact on the microflora.

Material and methods: Data were collected from 127 implants and all teeth in 56 subjects. Microbiological data were identified by the DNA–DNA checkerboard hybridization.

Results: PPD=4 mm were found in 16.9% of tooth, and at 26.6% of implant sites (P<0.01). Tooth sites with PPD=4 mm had a 3.1-fold higher bacterial load than implant sites (mean difference: 66%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.7–91.3, P<0.001). No differences were found for the red, orange, green, and yellow complexes. A higher total bacterial load was found at implant sites with PPD=4 mm (mean difference 35.7 × 105, 95% CI: 5.2 (105) to 66.1 (105), P<0.02 with equal variance not assumed). At implant sites, BOP had no impact on bacterial load but influenced the load at tooth sites (P<0.01).

Conclusion: BOP, and smoking had no impact on bacteria at implant sites but influenced the bacterial load at tooth sites. Tooth sites harbored more bacteria than implant sites with comparable PPD. The 4 mm PPD cutoff level influenced the distribution and amounts of bacterial loads. The subject factor is explanatory to bacterial load at both tooth and implant sites.

To cite this article:

Agerbaek MR, Lang NP, Persson GR. Comparisons of bacterial patterns present at implant and tooth sites in subjects on supportive periodontal therapy. I. Impact of clinical variables, gender and smoking.
Clin. Oral Impl. Res.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01190.x

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