||loss of tooth structure caused by tooth grinding, an improper bite, a hard toothbrush or poor brushing technique|
||a localized infection of a tooth and/or the gum|
||tooth or teeth that anchor a fixed or removable bridge|
|Acute apical abscess
||An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by rapid onset, spontaneous pain, tenderness of the tooth to pressure, pus formation and swelling of associated tissues|
||removal of tooth structure by blasting a tooth with air and abrasive, also a relatively new technology in dentistry that often avoids the need for anesthetic|
||an unwanted bodily response to a substance or organism|
||The hypersensitive response of the immune system of an allergic individual to a substance|
When an allergen enters the body, it causes the body's immune system to develop an allergic reaction in a person with
an allergy to it. This reaction can occur when the immune system attacks a normally harmless substance (the allergen).
The immune system calls upon a protective antibody called immunoglobulin E or IgE to fight these invading substances.
Even though everyone has some IgE, an allergic person has an unusually large army of these IgE defenders -in fact, too
many for their own good. This army of IgE antibodies attacks and engages the invading army of allergic substances of
allergens. As is often the case in war, innocent bystanders are affected by this battle. These innocent bystanders are
special cells called mast cells. When a mast cell is injured or irritated, it releases a variety of strong chemicals,
including histamine, into the tissues and blood that promote allergic reactions. These chemicals are very irritating
and cause itching, swelling, and fluid leaking from nearby cells. These allergic chemicals can cause muscle spasm and
can lead to lung airway and throat tightening as is found in asthma and loss of voice. They are also what leads to the
familiar hay fever or allergic rhinitis and common pink eye
||the bone surrounding the roots of teeth|
||A opening in your jaw-bone in which a tooth is attached|
||the most common material used for fillings, also called silver fillings; a mixture of mercury (app 50%), silver, tin, copper and zinc used for fillings|
||partial loss of pain sensation|
||absence of pain sensation; numbing a tooth is local anesthesia; with general anesthesia the patient is unconscious|
||the six upper and six lower front teeth|
||a drug that stops or slows the growth of germs (bacteria). A drug used to kill bacteria|
||an acronym for Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis, more commonly known as trench mouth or Vincent's disease, often brought on by stress and/or smoking|
||the tip of the root of a tooth|
|apical tissues - normal
||Teeth with normal periradicular tissues that will not be abnormally sensitive to percussion or palpation testing. The lamina dura surrounding the root is intact and the periodontal ligament space is uniform|
||removal of the root end of a tooth to treat an infection|
||shape assumed collectively by upper and lower teeth|
||(minocycline HCl) 1 mg Microspheres: An FDA-approved drug that is used in scaling and root planing (SRP) procedures for reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis. ARESTIN may be used as part of a periodontal maintenance program that includes good oral hygiene, and SRP|
|Asymptomatic apical periodontitis
||Inflammation and destruction of apical periodontium that is of pulpal origin, appears as an apical radiolucent area and does not produce clinical symptoms. (This is what many of us have previously called a Chronic Apical Periodontitis)|
||the first teeth, also called deciduous teeth; usually there are twenty baby teeth|
||Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites
(dependent upon another organism for life). |
Examples of bacteria include:
Acidophilus, a normal inhabitant of yogurt,
Chlamydia, which causes an infection very similar to gonorrhea,
Clostridium welchii the most common cause of the dreaded gas gangrene,
E. coli, the common peaceful citizen of our colon and, upon occasion, a dangerous agent of disease, and
Streptococcus, the bacterium that causes the important infection of the throat strep throat.
The term bacteria was devised in the 19th century by the German botanist Ferdinand Cohn (1828-98) who based it on the
Greek bakterion meaning a small rod or staff. In 1853, Cohn categorised bacteria as one of three types of
microorganisms -- bacteria (short rods), bacilli (longer rods), and spirilla (spiral forms). The term bacteria was
preceded in the 17th century by the microscopic animalcules described by Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723).
Small living organisms, or microorganisms, that live in the bodies of animals, humans, and plants. Some types of bacteria cause disease
Many things can cause bad breath. A major cause is decreased saliva. Saliva has a cleaning action that helps reduce or eliminate bad breath. When saliva decreases, bacteria can grow, causing bad breath.
Everybody has bad breath from time to time, especially first thing in the morning. You also may have bad breath when you are hungry, when you are dieting, or after eating foods with a strong odor, such as garlic, onions, or pastrami.
||a cement applied under a filling or crown to decrease sensitivity to heat or cold and protect the filling|
||A two-cusped tooth found between the molar and the cuspid also known as an eye tooth or canine tooth|
||removal of a small piece of tissue to determine if it is diseased|
||how the upper and lower teeth come together; may also be called occlusion|
|black hairy tongue
||excessive growth of fungi that normally live in the mouth|
||cosmetic whitening of teeth using peroxide|
||anesthetizing a nerve that serves a large area of the jaw, usually the lower jaw; may numb teeth, tongue and half of the jaw in that area|
||applying a tooth-colored resin to repair and/or change the color or shape of a tooth, most often a front tooth|
||Bone is the substance that forms the skeleton of the body. It is composed chiefly of calcium phosphate and
calcium carbonate . It also serves as a storage area for calcium, playing a large role in calcium balance in the blood.|
The 206 bones in the body serve several other purposes. They support and protect internal organs (for example, the
skull protects the brain and the ribs protect the lungs). Muscles pull against bones to make the body move. Bone
marrow, the soft, spongy tissue in the center of many bones, makes and stores blood cells.
||decrease in bone supporting the roots of teeth; a common result of gum disease|
||the gradual loss of bone Orthodontists use this process to "pull" teeth through bone to new positions.|
||devices used by orthodontists to gradually reposition teeth|
||appliance cemented to teeth adjacent to a space that replaces one or more missing teeth; usually cemented or attached to teeth or implants adjacent to the space|
||involuntary, "nervous" grinding of the teeth while the patient is asleep|
||involuntary, "nervous" grinding of the teeth while the patient is awake|
||The tooth surface which is next to your cheeks. Usually only posterior teeth touch your cheeks, the term "buccal" used only when talking about back teeth|
||chemical element needed for healthy teeth, bones and nerves|
||also tartar, hardened dental plaque on teeth, that is usually rough, hard, and porous
hard residue, ranging from yellow to brown, forming on teeth when oral hygiene is incomplete or improper|
||The second tooth from the big front tooth, commonly called the eye tooth or cuspid|
||whitish, often circular mouth sore lasting ten to fourteen days|
||fixed bridge that attaches to adjacent teeth on one end only|
||common term for crown|
||tooth decay or cavities|
||dental tool that uses high frequency sound waves to clean teeth|
||uncontrolled infection causing extensive swelling Since this is a dangerous condition, a dentist or physician should be consulted as soon as possible.|
||hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth|
||to measure the depth of the gum pockets around teeth|
|Chronic apical abscess
||An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by gradual onset, little or no discomfort and the intermittent discharge of pus through an associated sinus tract|
||device that retains a removable partial denture|
||The forceful holding together of the upper and lower teeth, which places stress on the ligaments that hold the teeth to the jawbone and the lower jaw to the skull|
||removal of plaque and calculus from teeth, generally above the gumline|
||The extensive dental restoration involving 6 or more units of crown and/or bridge in the same treatment plan. Using full crowns and/or fixed bridges which are cemented in place, the your dentist will rebuild natural teeth, fill in spaces where teeth are missing and establish conditions which allow each tooth to function in harmony with the occlusion (bite). The extensive procedures involved in complex rehabilitation require an extraordinary amount of time, effort, skill and laboratory collaboration for a successful outcome|
||common bonding mix of plastic and glass/ceramic particles; usually cured with light or chemicals|
|Coronal dentin dysplasia
||Coronal dentin dysplasia is a rare inherited dental defect that is also known as dentin dysplasia, type II. It is characterized by abnormal development (dysplasia) of the hard tissue (i.e., dentin) that is beneath the enamel, surrounds the pulp, and forms the major part of the teeth. In those with coronal dentin dysplasia, the baby teeth (primary or deciduous teeth) are brownish blue with a translucent "opalescence." (Opalescence refers to a milky, opal-like display of colors in reflected light [iridescence].) However, the permanent teeth appear normal in color.|
As seen on dental x-ray imaging, the pulp chambers of the primary teeth--or the natural cavities that contain living pulp in the exposed portion of the teeth (crowns)--are obliterated by abnormal dentin. In addition, the pulp-containing canals within the roots of the teeth (root canals) are smaller than normal. The permanent teeth also have distinctive abnormalities of the pulp chambers. Coronal dentin dysplasia is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.
||aesthetic improvement of the color and shape of teeth
performed by a general dentist|
||The part of your tooth above your gum: Also a crown is a dental appliance that replaces and covers the entire part of a tooth above the gum line. A crown may be made of gold, porcelain, or a combination of other man-made materials.|
Crowns are used to:
* Repair teeth that have broken or decayed so much that they can no longer be treated with a filling.
* Improve the appearance of front permanent teeth (incisors) that are properly spaced but are rotated and look crooked.
Crowns may be applied after a root canal treatment to seal the tooth and prevent it from breaking
||removal of dead inner tissue from a gum pocket|
||The chewing or tearing points of the cuspids, bicuspids, and molars|
||a fluid-filled sac|
||one whose nerve has died due to injury or underlying disease. They can give the tooth a dark appearance|
||destruction of tooth structure caused by acid produced by bacteria|
||hard, living inner layer of a tooth (the layer immediately under the outer enamel layer)|
||a(usually) titanium cylinder surgically placed in the bone of the upper or lower jaw to replace the root of a missing tooth|
||your teeth and how they are arranged in your mouth|
||a removable set of artificial teeth|
||the production and sale of dentures by non-dentists|
||the space between front teeth|
|direct pulp cap
||The procedure in which the exposed pulp is covered with a dressing or cement that protects the pulp and promotes healing and repair|
||A localized inflammation of the tooth socket following an extraction due to infection or loss of a blood clot|
||having lost most or all of the natural teeth||enamel
||hard tissue covering the crown (portion above the gumline) of a tooth|
deals with diseases of the dental pulp and supporting structures, diagnoses facial pain and related problems.
treats oral condition that arise as a result of disease or injury of the dental pulp of the tooth, such as a root canal.
||A complete is made up of two parts:|
1. Pulpal diagnosis
2. Periapical diagnosis
||The dental specialty that deals with injuries to or diseases of the pulp, or nerve, of the tooth|
||the process whereby teeth grow through the gums|
||Surgical removal of bone or tissue.|
||The overgrowth of normal bone|
||The outside of the crown of the tooth|
||a pointed instrument for examining the surfaces of teeth|
||removal of a tooth/teeth|
||The outside of the mouth|
||the four upper and lower canine or eye teeth|
||the visible portion of a crown; may be acrylic, composite or porcelain|
A filling is a substance that dentists use to replace a decayed or broken portion of a tooth. Commonly used substances for fillings include metal, alloy, plastic, porcelain, or a combination of materials (composite).
Composite resins are made from plastic materials (glass and resin) and are usually similar to tooth color. They are often used on the front teeth where a natural appearance is important. Composite resins can sometimes also be used on the back teeth.
||tunnel conducting pus from one infection to the site of another; a mouth fistula is called a gum boil|
|Focal sclerosing osteomyelitis
||(condensing osteitis).This entity may be considered a true lesion of endodontic origin (LEO). The involved tooth will have an etiologic factor for low-grade, chronic inflammation such as a necrotic pulp, extensive restorative history or a crack. The patient may be asymptomatic or demonstrate a wide range of pulpal symptoms. EPT and thermal tests may or may not be responsive. Percussion and palpation testing may or may not be sensitive. Radiographically, the involved tooth will present with increased radiodensity and opacity around one or more of the roots. Evidence supporting consideration as a LEO is that 85% of these periradicular radiodensities resolve after endodontic therapy if they have a pulpal diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.11|
||(periapical osteosclerosis).This entity is not a LEO. The patient will be asymptomatic. EPT and thermal testing are responsive and normal. Percussion and palpation testing will typically be non-sensitive. The involved tooth is usually a virgin tooth or has a normal pulp. Radiographically, the tooth will present with increased radiodensity and opacity around one or more of the roots. No treatment is necessary and the tooth should simply be monitored at periodic recall
||loosening of gums from bone to expose and clean underlying tooth structures|
||instrument used to remove a tooth|
||removable denture replacing all teeth in upper or lower arch|
||removal of the frenum, the thin cord of tissue that attaches the upper or lower lips to the gum or the tongue to the floor of the mouth|
||Small pieces of pink colored skin that attach your lips, cheeks and tongue to your mouth. Examples include the piece of skin under your tounge which sticks out when you pick up your tongue, and the piece of skin which sticks out when you pull out your lips.|
||a small, sark red papilla on the middle and anterior dorsal sides of the tongue
||(guided tissue regeneration) a new technique for replacing bone tissue lost between roots of teeth|
||a controlled state of unconsciousness, accompanied by a partial or complete loss of pain sensation, protective reflexes, and the ability to respond purposefully to physical stimulation or verbal command|
||primary care provider for patients in all age groups who
take responsibility for the diagnosis, treatment, management
and overall coordination of services to meet patients' oral
||loss of all usual color and texture of tongue; does not require treatment|
||general dentist who primarily treats senior citizens||gingiva
||removal of gum tissue|
The first stage of periodontal diseases. This is brought on by the bacteria in dental plaque if it is not removed on a daily basis. Reversible inflammation of gum tissue not including the
bone - inflammation of gum tissue. Gingivitis causes red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed. Because gingivitis usually doesn't cause pain, many people don't get the treatment they need.
||The pink areas around your teeth|
Gum disease (periodontal disease) occurs when plaque is allowed to build up on the teeth and the gums (also called the gingiva). Early gum disease, which is called gingivitis, causes red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed.
||compound used as a dental whitening agent and mouthwash|
||The science concerned with preventing illness and maintaining health|
||dental sensitivity to temperature and sweets; can precede an abscess|
||artificial device replacing tooth root; may anchor an artificial tooth, bridge, or denture|
|incision and drainage
||making an incision in an abscess to drain infection|
||four upper and four lower front teeth, (excludes the canine teeth|
||A dangerous event in which bacteria colonize (or completely take over) an area, such as an area of the human body|
||process for numbing the upper teeth (placing anesthetic liquid under the gum tissue and allowing it to migrate into the bone)|
||a filling made by a dental laboratory that is cemented into place, generally requires two dental appointments|
||a tiny TV camera used to view tissues of the mouth (owned by approximately 50 percent of U S dentists|
||crown for a front tooth, usually made of porcelain|
||Locally Administered Antibiotic (LAA): An antibiotic that is administered to a confined or definite place or part to help fight infection.|
|lacrimal branch of trigeminal nerve
||provides sensation for the tear gland |
||thin plastic or porcelain veneer produced in a dental laboratory and then bonded to a tooth to improve its appearance|
|Laser Dental Treatment|
Laser dental treatment involves generating a beam of light into your mouth. The light enables your dentist
to eliminate infected areas with accuracy. Sterilizing the affected area, the beam of light also closes off blood vessels.
In most cases, patients rarely need anesthesia, meaning your dental visit will be relatively short.
Since the 1960s, lasers have been used on teeth and gums and because of technological advancements,
lasers are now used globally. Laser dental treatments ensure low-power, meaning the device is gentle on the mouth.
Most commonly used for removing old composite fillings and fumigating infected root canals, lasers can also be
used for crown lengthening, bone shaping and oral surgery.
Benefits of Laser Dental Treatment
- Less noise than drilling
- Faster healing process
- Decreased risk of infection
- Less need for anesthesia
- Less need for multiple dental appointments
- Decreased sensitivity
||common name for nitrous oxide; used to reduce anxieties and relax patients|
||elimination of the sensation of pain, in one part of the body by the surface application or regional injection of an anesthetic drug|
||program whereby patient-dentist assignment and dentist reimbursement are administered by a separate, external organization
Malocclusion (often called crooked teeth or a “poor bite”) is the improper fit and alignment of the teeth and jaws. A common cause of malocclusion is teeth that have too much or too little room in the jaw.
Inherited traits, such as tooth and jaw size, mostly determine how well your teeth fit together. The most obvious sign of malocclusion is crooked or protruding teeth.
During the childhood and early teen years, orthodontists may straighten the teeth by changing the formation of the jaw, removing (extracting) selected teeth, or using fixed braces or removable appliances.
In adults, treatment with braces can straighten crooked teeth caused by a jaw problem, but any restructuring of the jawbone must be done with surgery, sometimes in combination with orthodontic treatment.
||the lower jaw|
||point of contact between a restoration and the tooth|
||a bridge that is bonded or cemented only to the backs of the adjacent teeth|
||a drill-free technique using an instrument resembling a
tiny sand blaster that delivers tiny aluminum oxide particles
to the surface where it cuts away the decayed area|
||Spherical shells that are filled with a drug for release as the shell is dissolved|
||Components or "parts" that are chemical elements or compounds|
||A broad-spectrum, tetracycline antibiotic|
||an appliance used to protect teeth from injury||molars
||the twelve back teeth in the entire mouth (or the three back teeth in each fourth of the mouth if the wisdom teeth are in|
||1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and containing the teeth, gums, and tongue.
Foodstuffs are broken down mechanically in the mouth by chewing and saliva is added as a lubricant. Saliva contains
amylase, an enzyme that digests starch|
2. Any opening or aperture in the body. The mouth in both senses of the word is
also called the os, the Latin word for an opening, or mouth. The o in os is pronounced as in hope. The genitive form of
os is oris from which comes the word oral.
A bundle of fibers that uses chemical and electrical signals to transmit sensory and motor information from one
body part to another
common term for tooth pulp which is the sensitive innermost portion of a tooth
The sum total of the tissues that record and distribute information within a person, and does so
by electrical and chemical means.
The nervous system has two distinct parts -- central and peripheral. The central part is made up of the brain and
spinal cord. Together they are the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral part of the nervous system is said to
be peripheral because it is outside the CNS. The function of the peripheral nervous system is to transmit information
back and forth between the CNS and the rest of the body.
The human nervous system contains approximately 10 billion nerve cells. These neurons are the basic building blocks of
the nervous system. Neurons consist of the nerve cell body and various extensions from the cell body. These extensions,
or processes, are the dendrites (branches off the cell that receive electrical impulses), the axon (the electrical
wiring and conduit tube that conducts impulses), and specialized endings (terminal areas to transfer impulses to
receivers on other nerves or muscles
||plastic device that covers all of the upper or lower teeth; used to prevent wear caused by tooth grinding during sleep
||a gas used to reduce patient anxiety|
||Numb or numbness is a loss of the sensation of feeling in an area of the body. Numbness results from damage to,
or impaired function of, the nerves that supply the affected area. The function of the nerves may be impaired by
numerous causes including some chronic diseases ( diabetes mellitus , thyroid disease, migraine ), trauma , toxins,
decreased blood supply due to atherosclerosis or other conditions, electrolyte imbalances, and pressure on the spinal
nerves from herniated discs or other diseases of the spine |
||the chewing surface of the tooth|
||how the upper and lower teeth come together|
||laboratory-produced restoration covering the cusps of a tooth|
||Of or having to do with the mouth|
|oral and maxillofacial surgeon
a specialist who deals with the diagnosis & surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, and deformities of the mouth, jaws and supporting structures.
||the process of maintaining the cleanliness of the mouth|
||examines oral tissues for evidence of suspected
abnormalities such as cancer. ||oral surgery
||operations on the mouth; for example, extractions, removal of cysts or tumors, and repair of broken jaw bone
||circular muscle that surrounds the mouth
||a branch of dentistry dealing with irregularities of the
teeth and their correction, by means of braces and
||designs and applies corrective and supportive appliances,
braces, to realign crooked teeth||overdenture
||denture that fits over tooth roots or dental implants|
||An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pain has both physical and
emotional components. The physical part of pain results from nerve stimulation. Pain may be contained to a discrete
area, as in an injury, or it can be more diffuse, as in disorders like fibromyalgia . Pain is mediated by specific
nerve fibers that carry the pain impulses to the brain where their conscious appreciation may be modified by many
Pain is also a term specifically used to denote a painful uterine contraction occurring in childbirth.
The word "pain" comes from the Latin "poena" meaning a fine, a penalty
||treatment that is designed primarily to reduce or eliminate pain|
||loss of sensation in part of the body||parotid gland
||largest salivary gland
||removable denture replacing some of the teeth|
||provides treatment and care for children from birth
||Bacterial infections involving bone loss around the teeth. Inflammation and irritation of the gums, which if left
untreated, can cause the jawbone and teeth to deteriorate and
||A series of simple measures performed by a dental professional that helps limit the effects and further development of periodontal disease. Some components of periodontal maintenance include soft tissue examination, plaque removal, and polishing of the teeth|
||Toxins in plaque destroy the gum and connective tissues beneath the teeth, forming a pocket (space). As the disease progresses toward the bone, the pocket fills with plaque and infection. If not treated, the bone and connective tissue surrounding the tooth may become so severely damaged that the tooth will fall out or need to be extracted.|
||The areas around the tooth where deep pockets have formed|
||diagnoses and treats diseases of the tissues supporting
and surrounding the teeth, especially periodontal, gum, disease|
Periodontitis is an advanced form of gum disease in which the tissues and bones that support the teeth are damaged by the buildup of bacterial plaque. If periodontitis is not treated, teeth can become loose and may fall out or need to be removed.
Treatment for periodontitis includes a cleaning method called root planing and scaling that removes plaque and tartar buildup both above and below the gum line. Antibiotics may be needed to help get rid of the infection. If gum disease is severe, surgery may be required.
||the thirty-two adult teeth|
|Periradicular Tissues - Normal
||Normal periradicular tissues will be non-sensitive to percussion and palpation testing. Radiographically, periradicular tissues are normal with an intact lamina dura and a uniform periodontal ligament (PDL) space|
|Acute periradicular periodontitis
||Acute periradicular periodontitis occurs when pulpal disease extends into the surrounding periradicular tissues and causes inflammation. However, acute periradicular periodontitis may also occur as the result of occlusal traumatism. The patient will generally complain of discomfort to biting or chewing. Sensitivity to percussion is a hallmark diagnostic test result of acute periradicular periodontitis. Palpation testing may or may not produce a sensitive response. The PDL space may appear normal, widened, or there may be a distinct radiolucency|
|Chronic periradicular periodontitis
||When bacteria or bacterial products from a necrotic pulp or pulpless tooth slowly ingress into the periradicular tissues, the patient’s immune system may become involved in a chronic conflict. The resultant inflammatory process causes periradicular bone resorption that manifests as a periradicular radiolucency on the radiograph. Clinically, the patient is asymptomatic. Percussion and palpation testing produce non-sensitive responses
|Subacute periradicular periodontitis
||(chronic periradicular periodontitis with symptoms). The patient will present with mild to moderate symptoms that may include spontaneous pain or discomfort on biting or chewing. The tooth may present with any pulpal diagnosis. Percussion testing produces a mild sensitive response and palpation testing may or may not be sensitive. Clinical symptoms are not as severe as acute periradicular periodontitis. Radiographically, the tooth will present anywhere from a normal periradicular appearance to a distinct radiolucency. These patients must receive endodontic treatment in a timely manner because the condition can quickly progress into acute periradicular periodontitis or an acute periradicular abscess
|Acute periradicular abscess
||In this situation, bacteria have progressed into the periradicular tissues and the patient’s immune response cannot defend against the invasion. It is characterized by rapid onset, spontaneous pain, pus formation, and often swelling of the associated tissues. Depending upon the location of the apices of the tooth and muscle attachments, a swelling will usually develop in the buccal vestibule, on the lingual/palatal, or as a fascial space infection. Percussion testing produces a response that is usually exquisitely sensitive. This exaggerated response can help differentiate between acute periradicular periodontitis and the early stages of acute periradicular abscess. Palpation testing produces a sensitive response. Radiographically, the PDL space may be normal, slightly widened, or demonstrate a distinct radiolucency. This periradicular pathosis can occur with a necrotic pulp or a pulpless tooth that has been partially or definitely endodontically treated if continued bacterial contamination and/or leakage occurs|
|Chronic periradicular abscess
||(suppurative periradicular periodontitis). An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by gradual onset, little or no discomfort and intermittent discharge of pus through an associated sinus tract. Clinically, the patient is usually asymptomatic because the sinus tract allows drainage of any exudate from the periradicular tissues. EPT and thermal testing are non-responsive. Percussion and palpation testing usually produce non-sensitive responses. Radiographically, a periradicular lesion is associated with the involved tooth. This entity can also occur with a pulpless tooth that has been partially or definitely endodontically treated if continued bacterial contamination and/or leakage occurs|
||a small defect in the tooth enamel, usually found on the back teeth|
||a treatment that works because of the patient's belief in it, not because of the actual physical change it produces|
||The size (depth) of a periodontal pocket, usually measured in millimeters|
Soft deposits of bacteria and debris that collect on teeth. Plaque is a clear, sticky substance produced by the mouth. Plaque contains bacteria that produce acids and other chemicals that can damage the teeth, gums, and surrounding bone if the plaque is not removed.
Plaque forms constantly, but it can be controlled by proper brushing and flossing.
||a false tooth mounted on a bridge|
||a porcelain cap which covers the crown (that portion above the gumline) of the tooth to repair it or change the shape and/or color|
|porcelain inlay or onlay
||a tooth-colored filling, made of porcelain|
a thin layer of porcelain bonded to the front and top of a front tooth to repair or change the color and/or shape
a thin metal rod inserted into the root of a tooth after root canal therapy; provides retention for a "core" which is a buildup of material that replaces the lost tooth structure
||a post and a buildup of material that replaces the lost tooth structure|
||single structure that combines post-core and crown|
||An instrument like a ruler that the dental professional uses to measure pocket depth. A probe measures in millimeters|
||the probable outcome of treatment|
||A standard dental cleaning of the teeth that helps maintain good oral hygiene and prevents the development of infection|
||an artificial replacement for a body part|
||a dentist who specializes in restoring teeth, replacing missing teeth with bridges and dentures, and maintaining proper occlusion|
||the nerves, blood vessels and connective tissue inside a tooth|
|pulp - normal
||A normal pulp is symptom free and will normally be responsive to the electric pulp tester (EPT). When evaluated by thermal testing, the normal pulp produces a positive response that is mild and subsides immediately when the stimulus is removed|
||A tooth from which the pulp has been removed. For example, a tooth with previous pulpotomy/pulpectomy/root canal debridement or previous root canal therapy should be recorded as a pulpless tooth for the pulpal diagnosis |
||the center or innermost portion of the tooth containing the pulp. Also knowl as pulp canal|
||Normal pulp - A clinical diagnostic category in which the pulp is symptom free and normally responsive to vitality testing.|
Reversible pulpitis : A clinical diagnosis based upon subjective and objective findings indicating that the inflammation should resolve and the pulp return to normal
Irreversible pulpitis:A clinical diagnosis based on subjective and objective findings indicating that the vital inflamed pulp is incapable of healing.
Additional descriptions: Symptomatic,Lingering thermal pain, spontaneous pain, referred pain
Asymptomatic: No clinical symptoms but inflammation produced by caries,caries excavation, trauma, etc.
Pulp necrosis: A clinical diagnostic category indicating death of the dental pulp. The pulp is non-responsive to vitality testing.
Previously Treated: A clinical diagnostic category indicating that the tooth has been endodontically treated and the canals are obturated with various filling materials, other that intracanal medicaments.
Previously Initiated Therapy: A clinical diagnostic category indicating that the tooth has been previously treated by partial endodontic therapy (e.g. pulpotomy, pulpectomy).
||Necrosis is a histologic term that denotes death of the pulp. Teeth with total pulpal necrosis are usually asymptomatic unless inflammation has progressed to the periradicular tissues. The pulp will not respond to the EPT and if using a digital EPT, this result should be reported as no response (NR) over 80. The pulp will not respond to thermal tests. The dental record entry for this pulpal diagnosis should be pulpal necrosis|
||total removal of the pulp in children's teeth|
|public health dentist
||is concerned with the dental health needs of entire
communities, and can design and administer large-scale
prevention and dental care programs by compiling and analyzing
||a medicated covering over a small area of exposed pulp|
||inflammation of the pulp; a common cause of a toothache|
|pulpitis - reversible
||Caries, cracks, restorative procedures or trauma may cause a pulp to become inflamed. The patient’s chief complaint is usually of an exaggerated response to thermal stimulus but once the stimulus is removed, the discomfort does not linger. EPT results are responsive|
|pulpitis - irreversible
||If the inflammatory process progresses, irreversible pulpitis can develop. Patients may have a history of spontaneous pain and complain of an exaggerated response to hot or cold that lingers after the stimulus is removed. EPT results are usually responsive. The involved tooth will often present with a history of an extensive restoration and/or caries.|
In certain cases of irreversible pulpitis, the patient may arrive at the dental clinic sipping a glass of ice water or applying ice to the affected area. In these cases, cold actually alleviates the patient’s pain as the dental pulp has developed allodynia and is hyperalgesic. Normal body temperature is now causing the nociceptors in the pulp to discharge.10 Removal of the cold causes return of symptoms and can be used as a diagnostic test.
Irreversible pulpitis can also present as an asymptomatic condition. Internal resorption and hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp) are examples of asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis
||partial removal of the pulp|
||common term for gum disease|
||surgery technique that uses radio waves to produce a
pressureless, bloodless incision; can also be used to heat
||return to mouth of tooth/teeth lost through trauma|
||plastic buildup of denture to compensate for bone loss (usually accomplished in conjunction with a dental laboratory|
||plastic material used in bonding, restorative and
||A situation that occurs when bacteria no longer respond to the effects of antibiotic treatment|
||the replacement part or portion restored on a damaged tooth|
||process of restoring missing, damaged or diseased teeth to
normal form and function, performed by general dentists|
||root remaining in jaw after tooth is extracted or broken off|
||The part of the tooth that is not covered by enamel.Tooth structure that connects the tooth to the jaw|
||common term for root canal therapy, also the interior space of the tooth root|
|root canal therapy
||process of removing pulp of a tooth and filling it with an inert material|
||A dental procedure used to remove plaque and calculus from the root of the tooth. Planing smoothes the root surfaces to promote healing|
||removal of root of a tooth while retaining the crown|
||common term for root canal therapy, also the interior space of the tooth root|
||soft latex sheet used to protect one or more teeth from moisture and to keep materials from falling to the back of the throat|
||Scaling and root planing (SRP): Cleaning teeth to remove plaque and calculus above and below the gum line, and smoothing the roots of the teeth to promote healing.|
||clear fluid in the mouth containing water, enzymes, bacteria, mucus, viruses, blood cells and undigested food particles|
||suction tube placed in the mouth to remove saliva|
||located under tongue and in cheeks, produce saliva|
||A dental procedure (meticulous removal) used to scrape bacterial plaque and calculus from the surfaces of the tooth.|
||located under tongue and in cheeks, produce saliva|
||plastic material bonded in the grooves and pits of back teeth for the prevention of decay|
||produced by the pulp in response to tooth irritation|
||1.In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sensitivity training, training in small
groups to develop a sensitive awareness and understanding of oneself and of ones relationships with others. |
2. In disease epidemiology, the ability of a system to detect epidemics and other changes in disease occurrence.
3. In screening for a disease, the proportion of persons with the disease who are correctly identified by a screening
4. In the definition of a disease, the proportion of persons with the disease who are correctly identified by defined
||Means of delivering medicine through the bloodstream to reach the organs|
is a disease in which the immune system attacks the body's moisture-producing glands. This disease may cause the tear and saliva glands to become scarred and damaged, and can cause exceptional dryness in the eyes and mouth.
Sjögren's syndrome is most common in women who are older than 40.
People with Sjögren's syndrome usually have a dry mouth that makes swallowing difficult and dry eyes that cause eye pain. In severe cases, they may have scarring of the covering of the eye (cornea). Sjögren's syndrome may also cause fatigue, joint pain, and problems with the function of vital organs.
Although there currently is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, treatment of symptoms can offer relief for many people. For example, artificial tears can be used to moisten the eyes, and mouth lubricants and saliva substitutes can help to moisten the mouth and throat.
||the periodic interruption or delay in breathing during sleep|
||dental device that holds the space lost through premature loss of baby teeth|
||person with disability who requires particular dental care
||to connect two or more teeth so they function as a stronger single structure|
Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the tissues in the back of the throat (pharynx) and the tonsils or adenoids. The tissues become irritated and inflamed, causing a sudden, severe sore throat
Symptoms of strep throat include a sore throat with:
* Fever of 101° F (38.3° C) or higher.
* Pain and difficulty swallowing.
* White or yellow spots or coating on the throat and tonsils.
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
In children, strep throat may also cause body aches, headache, stomachache, nausea, vomiting, or listlessness. Strep throat does not occur with cold symptoms, such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, or cough.
While strep throat usually resolves on its own in a few days, it is treated with antibiotics to prevent complications, such as rheumatic fever, from occurring.
||also called calculus, a hard deposit containing bacteria and minerals that adheres to teeth. Hardened dental plaque on teeth, that is usually rough, hard, and porous|
||A drop of the salty secretion of the lacrimal glands which serves to moisten the conjunctiva and cornea|
||temperomandibular disorder; term given to condition characterized by facial pain and restricted ability to open/move the jaw|
||the temporomandibular joint, the point where the lower jaw attaches to the upper jaw|
||term given to condition characterized by facial pain and restricted ability to open/move the jaw|
||insurance company, union, government agency that pays all or a part of cost of dental treatment|
||A tissue in medicine is not like a piece of tissue paper. It is a broad term that is applied to any group of
cells that perform specific functions. A tissue in medicine need not form a layer. Thus,The bone marrow is a tissue;
Connective tissue consists of cells that make up fibers in the framework supporting other body tissues; and
Lymphoid tissue is the part of the body's immune system that helps protect it from bacteria and other foreign entities.
The structures within the mouth that allow for biting and chewing. Teeth have different shapes, depending on
their purpose. The sharp canine and frontal teeth allow for biting, while the flattened, thick molars in the back of
the mouth provide grinding surfaces for masticating food. All teeth have essentially the same structure: a hard crown
above the gum line, which is attached to two or four roots by a portion called the neck. The roots are covered with a
very thin layer of bone, and keep the tooth embedded in the bones of the jaw. The exposed exterior of the tooth is
covered with tough enamel. Under the enamel is a thick layer of dentin, and in the center is the pulp. Blood vessels
and nerves are found within the pulp
||early embryonic structure that becomes a tooth|
the combination of bacteria and food causes tooth decay. A clear, sticky substance called plaque
that contains bacteria is always forming on your teeth and gums. As the bacteria feed on the sugars in the food you eat, they make acids. The acids attack the
teeth for 20 minutes or more after eating. Over a period of time, these acids destroy tooth enamel, resulting in tooth decay. Tooth decay is the process that
results in a cavity (dental caries).If not treated, tooth decay can cause infection and tooth loss.
||a process to lighten the color of teeth|
||common bony growth on the palate or lower jaw|
||placing a natural tooth in the empty socket of another tooth|
||injury caused by a blow, chemicals, temperature extremes, or poor tooth alignment|
||gum disease characterized by severe mouth sores and loss of tissue. See ANUG.|
||a tooth that has not pushed through the gum and assumed its correct position in the jaw|
||plastic or porcelain facing bonded directly to a tooth to improve its appearance. See laminate.|
||the third set of molars that usually erupt when a person is 18-25 years of age|
||decrease in production of saliva|