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o·don·to·blast - noun. | o·don'to·blas'tic adj.
One of the cells forming the outer surface of dental pulp that produces the dentin of a tooth.

ne·cro·sis - noun | ne·crot'ic (-krot'ik) adj.
Death of cells or tissues through injury or disease, especially in a localized area of the body.
[Late Latin necrosis, a causing to die, killing, from Greek nekrosis, death, from nekroun, to
make dead, from nekros, corpse.]

mon·o·mer  - noun  | mon'o·mer'ic (-mer'ik) adj.
A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.[MONO– + (POLY)MER.]

cy·to·tox·ic  - adj. | cy'to·tox·ic'i·ty (-tok-sis'i-te) noun
Of, relating to, or producing a toxic effect on cells.

de·hy·dro·gen·ase - noun
An enzyme that catalyzes the removal of hydrogen from a substrate
and the transfer of the hydrogen to an acceptor in an oxidation-reduction reaction.

Dental resins are enamel-colored composites used for filling. They
consist of the polymer matrix and filler held together by the coupling agent.
Dental resins have gained popularity with improved durability and aesthetics
Abstracts Index
3rd endovac case
Scared kids
Dental Journals
Use of antibiotics
MTA again
Bonded obturation
Abstracts 12
Dental terms
Second molar
Multiple CaOH case
Mandibular premolar
Extra-oral fistula in nostril
Infection related resorption
Extensive carious lesion
Dental questions & answers
Patients education
10 myths - latex allergy
Endo abstracts
Necrotic case
Last molar case
Going to USA?
Miracle of CaOH
Sinus lift

abrasion loss of tooth structure caused by tooth grinding, an improper bite, a hard toothbrush or poor brushing technique
abscess a localized infection of a tooth and/or the gum
abutment tooth or teeth that anchor a fixed or removable bridge
Acute apical abscess An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by rapid onset, spontaneous pain, tenderness of the tooth to pressure, pus formation and swelling of associated tissues
air abrasion removal of tooth structure by blasting a tooth with air and abrasive, also a relatively new technology in dentistry that often avoids the need for anesthetic
allergy an unwanted bodily response to a substance or organism
allergic reaction The hypersensitive response of the immune system of an allergic individual to a substance

When an allergen enters the body, it causes the body's immune system to develop an allergic reaction in a person with an allergy to it. This reaction can occur when the immune system attacks a normally harmless substance (the allergen). The immune system calls upon a protective antibody called immunoglobulin E or IgE to fight these invading substances. Even though everyone has some IgE, an allergic person has an unusually large army of these IgE defenders -in fact, too many for their own good. This army of IgE antibodies attacks and engages the invading army of allergic substances of allergens. As is often the case in war, innocent bystanders are affected by this battle. These innocent bystanders are special cells called mast cells. When a mast cell is injured or irritated, it releases a variety of strong chemicals, including histamine, into the tissues and blood that promote allergic reactions. These chemicals are very irritating and cause itching, swelling, and fluid leaking from nearby cells. These allergic chemicals can cause muscle spasm and can lead to lung airway and throat tightening as is found in asthma and loss of voice. They are also what leads to the familiar hay fever or allergic rhinitis and common pink eye

alveolar bone the bone surrounding the roots of teeth
Alveolus A opening in your jaw-bone in which a tooth is attached
amalgam the most common material used for fillings, also called silver fillings; a mixture of mercury (app 50%), silver, tin, copper and zinc used for fillings
analgesia partial loss of pain sensation
anesthesia absence of pain sensation; numbing a tooth is local anesthesia; with general anesthesia the patient is unconscious
anterior teeth the six upper and six lower front teeth
antibiotic a drug that stops or slows the growth of germs (bacteria). A drug used to kill bacteria
anug an acronym for Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis, more commonly known as trench mouth or Vincent's disease, often brought on by stress and/or smoking
apex the tip of the root of a tooth
apical tissues - normal Teeth with normal periradicular tissues that will not be abnormally sensitive to percussion or palpation testing. The lamina dura surrounding the root is intact and the periodontal ligament space is uniform
apicoectomy removal of the root end of a tooth to treat an infection
arch shape assumed collectively by upper and lower teeth
arestin (minocycline HCl) 1 mg Microspheres: An FDA-approved drug that is used in scaling and root planing (SRP) procedures for reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis. ARESTIN may be used as part of a periodontal maintenance program that includes good oral hygiene, and SRP
Asymptomatic apical periodontitis Inflammation and destruction of apical periodontium that is of pulpal origin, appears as an apical radiolucent area and does not produce clinical symptoms. (This is what many of us have previously called a Chronic Apical Periodontitis)
baby teeth the first teeth, also called deciduous teeth; usually there are twenty baby teeth
bacteria Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life).
Examples of bacteria include:
Acidophilus, a normal inhabitant of yogurt,
Chlamydia, which causes an infection very similar to gonorrhea,
Clostridium welchii the most common cause of the dreaded gas gangrene,
E. coli, the common peaceful citizen of our colon and, upon occasion, a dangerous agent of disease, and
Streptococcus, the bacterium that causes the important infection of the throat strep throat. The term bacteria was devised in the 19th century by the German botanist Ferdinand Cohn (1828-98) who based it on the Greek bakterion meaning a small rod or staff. In 1853, Cohn categorised bacteria as one of three types of microorganisms -- bacteria (short rods), bacilli (longer rods), and spirilla (spiral forms). The term bacteria was preceded in the 17th century by the microscopic animalcules described by Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723).
Small living organisms, or microorganisms, that live in the bodies of animals, humans, and plants. Some types of bacteria cause disease
bad breath

Many things can cause bad breath. A major cause is decreased saliva. Saliva has a cleaning action that helps reduce or eliminate bad breath. When saliva decreases, bacteria can grow, causing bad breath. Everybody has bad breath from time to time, especially first thing in the morning. You also may have bad breath when you are hungry, when you are dieting, or after eating foods with a strong odor, such as garlic, onions, or pastrami.

base a cement applied under a filling or crown to decrease sensitivity to heat or cold and protect the filling
bicuspid A two-cusped tooth found between the molar and the cuspid also known as an eye tooth or canine tooth
biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue to determine if it is diseased
bite how the upper and lower teeth come together; may also be called occlusion
black hairy tongue excessive growth of fungi that normally live in the mouth
bleaching cosmetic whitening of teeth using peroxide
block injection anesthetizing a nerve that serves a large area of the jaw, usually the lower jaw; may numb teeth, tongue and half of the jaw in that area
bonding applying a tooth-colored resin to repair and/or change the color or shape of a tooth, most often a front tooth
bone Bone is the substance that forms the skeleton of the body. It is composed chiefly of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate . It also serves as a storage area for calcium, playing a large role in calcium balance in the blood.
The 206 bones in the body serve several other purposes. They support and protect internal organs (for example, the skull protects the brain and the ribs protect the lungs). Muscles pull against bones to make the body move. Bone marrow, the soft, spongy tissue in the center of many bones, makes and stores blood cells.
bone loss decrease in bone supporting the roots of teeth; a common result of gum disease
bone resorption the gradual loss of bone Orthodontists use this process to "pull" teeth through bone to new positions.
braces devices used by orthodontists to gradually reposition teeth
bridge appliance cemented to teeth adjacent to a space that replaces one or more missing teeth; usually cemented or attached to teeth or implants adjacent to the space
bruxism involuntary, "nervous" grinding of the teeth while the patient is asleep
bruxomania involuntary, "nervous" grinding of the teeth while the patient is awake
buccal The tooth surface which is next to your cheeks. Usually only posterior teeth touch your cheeks, the term "buccal" used only when talking about back teeth
calcium chemical element needed for healthy teeth, bones and nerves
calculus also tartar, hardened dental plaque on teeth, that is usually rough, hard, and porous hard residue, ranging from yellow to brown, forming on teeth when oral hygiene is incomplete or improper
canine tooth The second tooth from the big front tooth, commonly called the eye tooth or cuspid
canker sore whitish, often circular mouth sore lasting ten to fourteen days
cantilever bridge fixed bridge that attaches to adjacent teeth on one end only
cap common term for crown
carcinogenic cancer causing
caries tooth decay or cavities
cariogenic decay causing
cavitron dental tool that uses high frequency sound waves to clean teeth
cellulitis uncontrolled infection causing extensive swelling Since this is a dangerous condition, a dentist or physician should be consulted as soon as possible.
cementum hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth
chart to measure the depth of the gum pockets around teeth
Chronic apical abscess An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by gradual onset, little or no discomfort and the intermittent discharge of pus through an associated sinus tract
clasp device that retains a removable partial denture
clenching The forceful holding together of the upper and lower teeth, which places stress on the ligaments that hold the teeth to the jawbone and the lower jaw to the skull
cleaning removal of plaque and calculus from teeth, generally above the gumline
complex rehabilitation The extensive dental restoration involving 6 or more units of crown and/or bridge in the same treatment plan. Using full crowns and/or fixed bridges which are cemented in place, the your dentist will rebuild natural teeth, fill in spaces where teeth are missing and establish conditions which allow each tooth to function in harmony with the occlusion (bite). The extensive procedures involved in complex rehabilitation require an extraordinary amount of time, effort, skill and laboratory collaboration for a successful outcome
composite common bonding mix of plastic and glass/ceramic particles; usually cured with light or chemicals
Coronal dentin dysplasia Coronal dentin dysplasia is a rare inherited dental defect that is also known as dentin dysplasia, type II. It is characterized by abnormal development (dysplasia) of the hard tissue (i.e., dentin) that is beneath the enamel, surrounds the pulp, and forms the major part of the teeth. In those with coronal dentin dysplasia, the baby teeth (primary or deciduous teeth) are brownish blue with a translucent "opalescence." (Opalescence refers to a milky, opal-like display of colors in reflected light [iridescence].) However, the permanent teeth appear normal in color.
As seen on dental x-ray imaging, the pulp chambers of the primary teeth--or the natural cavities that contain living pulp in the exposed portion of the teeth (crowns)--are obliterated by abnormal dentin. In addition, the pulp-containing canals within the roots of the teeth (root canals) are smaller than normal. The permanent teeth also have distinctive abnormalities of the pulp chambers. Coronal dentin dysplasia is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.
cosmetic dentistry aesthetic improvement of the color and shape of teeth performed by a general dentist
crown The part of your tooth above your gum: Also a crown is a dental appliance that replaces and covers the entire part of a tooth above the gum line. A crown may be made of gold, porcelain, or a combination of other man-made materials.
Crowns are used to:
* Repair teeth that have broken or decayed so much that they can no longer be treated with a filling.
* Improve the appearance of front permanent teeth (incisors) that are properly spaced but are rotated and look crooked.
Crowns may be applied after a root canal treatment to seal the tooth and prevent it from breaking
curretage removal of dead inner tissue from a gum pocket
Cuspal The chewing or tearing points of the cuspids, bicuspids, and molars
cyst a fluid-filled sac
dead tooth one whose nerve has died due to injury or underlying disease. They can give the tooth a dark appearance
decay destruction of tooth structure caused by acid produced by bacteria
deciduous teeth baby teeth
dentin hard, living inner layer of a tooth (the layer immediately under the outer enamel layer)
dental implant a(usually) titanium cylinder surgically placed in the bone of the upper or lower jaw to replace the root of a missing tooth
dentition your teeth and how they are arranged in your mouth
denture a removable set of artificial teeth
denturism the production and sale of dentures by non-dentists
diastema the space between front teeth
direct pulp cap The procedure in which the exposed pulp is covered with a dressing or cement that protects the pulp and promotes healing and repair
dry socket A localized inflammation of the tooth socket following an extraction due to infection or loss of a blood clot
edentulous having lost most or all of the natural teeth
enamel hard tissue covering the crown (portion above the gumline) of a tooth

deals with diseases of the dental pulp and supporting structures, diagnoses facial pain and related problems. treats oral condition that arise as a result of disease or injury of the dental pulp of the tooth, such as a root canal.

Endodontic diagnosis A complete is made up of two parts:
1. Pulpal diagnosis
2. Periapical diagnosis
enzootics The dental specialty that deals with injuries to or diseases of the pulp, or nerve, of the tooth
eruption the process whereby teeth grow through the gums
excision Surgical removal of bone or tissue.
exodontia see extraction
exostosis The overgrowth of normal bone
extracoronal The outside of the crown of the tooth
explorer a pointed instrument for examining the surfaces of teeth
extraction removal of a tooth/teeth
extraoral The outside of the mouth
eyeteeth the four upper and lower canine or eye teeth
facing the visible portion of a crown; may be acrylic, composite or porcelain

A filling is a substance that dentists use to replace a decayed or broken portion of a tooth. Commonly used substances for fillings include metal, alloy, plastic, porcelain, or a combination of materials (composite). Composite resins are made from plastic materials (glass and resin) and are usually similar to tooth color. They are often used on the front teeth where a natural appearance is important. Composite resins can sometimes also be used on the back teeth.

fistula tunnel conducting pus from one infection to the site of another; a mouth fistula is called a gum boil
Focal sclerosing osteomyelitis (condensing osteitis).This entity may be considered a true lesion of endodontic origin (LEO). The involved tooth will have an etiologic factor for low-grade, chronic inflammation such as a necrotic pulp, extensive restorative history or a crack. The patient may be asymptomatic or demonstrate a wide range of pulpal symptoms. EPT and thermal tests may or may not be responsive. Percussion and palpation testing may or may not be sensitive. Radiographically, the involved tooth will present with increased radiodensity and opacity around one or more of the roots. Evidence supporting consideration as a LEO is that 85% of these periradicular radiodensities resolve after endodontic therapy if they have a pulpal diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.11
Focal osteopetrosis (periapical osteosclerosis).This entity is not a LEO. The patient will be asymptomatic. EPT and thermal testing are responsive and normal. Percussion and palpation testing will typically be non-sensitive. The involved tooth is usually a virgin tooth or has a normal pulp. Radiographically, the tooth will present with increased radiodensity and opacity around one or more of the roots. No treatment is necessary and the tooth should simply be monitored at periodic recall
flap surgery loosening of gums from bone to expose and clean underlying tooth structures
forceps instrument used to remove a tooth
full denture removable denture replacing all teeth in upper or lower arch
frenectomy removal of the frenum, the thin cord of tissue that attaches the upper or lower lips to the gum or the tongue to the floor of the mouth
frenum Small pieces of pink colored skin that attach your lips, cheeks and tongue to your mouth. Examples include the piece of skin under your tounge which sticks out when you pick up your tongue, and the piece of skin which sticks out when you pull out your lips.
fungiform a small, sark red papilla on the middle and anterior dorsal sides of the tongue
GTR (guided tissue regeneration) a new technique for replacing bone tissue lost between roots of teeth
general anesthesia a controlled state of unconsciousness, accompanied by a partial or complete loss of pain sensation, protective reflexes, and the ability to respond purposefully to physical stimulation or verbal command
general dentist primary care provider for patients in all age groups who take responsibility for the diagnosis, treatment, management and overall coordination of services to meet patients' oral health needs
geographic tongue loss of all usual color and texture of tongue; does not require treatment
geriatric dentist general dentist who primarily treats senior citizens
gingiva the gums
gingivectomy removal of gum tissue

The first stage of periodontal diseases. This is brought on by the bacteria in dental plaque if it is not removed on a daily basis. Reversible inflammation of gum tissue not including the bone - inflammation of gum tissue. Gingivitis causes red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed. Because gingivitis usually doesn't cause pain, many people don't get the treatment they need.

gum The pink areas around your teeth
gum boil see fistula
Gum disease

Gum disease (periodontal disease) occurs when plaque is allowed to build up on the teeth and the gums (also called the gingiva). Early gum disease, which is called gingivitis, causes red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed.

halitosis bad breath
hydrogen peroxide(H202) compound used as a dental whitening agent and mouthwash
Hygiene The science concerned with preventing illness and maintaining health
hyperemia dental sensitivity to temperature and sweets; can precede an abscess
implant artificial device replacing tooth root; may anchor an artificial tooth, bridge, or denture
incision and drainage making an incision in an abscess to drain infection
incisors four upper and four lower front teeth, (excludes the canine teeth
infection A dangerous event in which bacteria colonize (or completely take over) an area, such as an area of the human body
infiltration process for numbing the upper teeth (placing anesthetic liquid under the gum tissue and allowing it to migrate into the bone)
inlay a filling made by a dental laboratory that is cemented into place, generally requires two dental appointments
intraoral camera a tiny TV camera used to view tissues of the mouth (owned by approximately 50 percent of U S dentists
jacket crown for a front tooth, usually made of porcelain
LAA Locally Administered Antibiotic (LAA): An antibiotic that is administered to a confined or definite place or part to help fight infection.
lacrimal branch of trigeminal nerve provides sensation for the tear gland
laminate thin plastic or porcelain veneer produced in a dental laboratory and then bonded to a tooth to improve its appearance
Laser Dental Treatment

Laser dental treatment involves generating a beam of light into your mouth. The light enables your dentist to eliminate infected areas with accuracy. Sterilizing the affected area, the beam of light also closes off blood vessels. In most cases, patients rarely need anesthesia, meaning your dental visit will be relatively short.
Since the 1960s, lasers have been used on teeth and gums and because of technological advancements, lasers are now used globally. Laser dental treatments ensure low-power, meaning the device is gentle on the mouth. Most commonly used for removing old composite fillings and fumigating infected root canals, lasers can also be used for crown lengthening, bone shaping and oral surgery.
Benefits of Laser Dental Treatment
- Less noise than drilling
- Faster healing process
- Decreased risk of infection
- Less need for anesthesia
- Less need for multiple dental appointments
- Decreased sensitivity

laughing gas common name for nitrous oxide; used to reduce anxieties and relax patients
local anesthesia elimination of the sensation of pain, in one part of the body by the surface application or regional injection of an anesthetic drug
mangaed care program whereby patient-dentist assignment and dentist reimbursement are administered by a separate, external organization

Malocclusion (often called crooked teeth or a “poor bite”) is the improper fit and alignment of the teeth and jaws. A common cause of malocclusion is teeth that have too much or too little room in the jaw.
Inherited traits, such as tooth and jaw size, mostly determine how well your teeth fit together. The most obvious sign of malocclusion is crooked or protruding teeth.
During the childhood and early teen years, orthodontists may straighten the teeth by changing the formation of the jaw, removing (extracting) selected teeth, or using fixed braces or removable appliances.
In adults, treatment with braces can straighten crooked teeth caused by a jaw problem, but any restructuring of the jawbone must be done with surgery, sometimes in combination with orthodontic treatment.

mandible the lower jaw
margin point of contact between a restoration and the tooth
Maryland bridge a bridge that is bonded or cemented only to the backs of the adjacent teeth
maxilla upper jaw
microair abrasion a drill-free technique using an instrument resembling a tiny sand blaster that delivers tiny aluminum oxide particles to the surface where it cuts away the decayed area
Microspheres Spherical shells that are filled with a drug for release as the shell is dissolved
milk teeth baby teeth
minerals Components or "parts" that are chemical elements or compounds
Minocycline A broad-spectrum, tetracycline antibiotic
mouthguards an appliance used to protect teeth from injury
molars the twelve back teeth in the entire mouth (or the three back teeth in each fourth of the mouth if the wisdom teeth are in
mouth 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and containing the teeth, gums, and tongue. Foodstuffs are broken down mechanically in the mouth by chewing and saliva is added as a lubricant. Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that digests starch
2. Any opening or aperture in the body. The mouth in both senses of the word is also called the os, the Latin word for an opening, or mouth. The o in os is pronounced as in hope. The genitive form of os is oris from which comes the word oral.

A bundle of fibers that uses chemical and electrical signals to transmit sensory and motor information from one body part to another
common term for tooth pulp which is the sensitive innermost portion of a tooth

nervous system

The sum total of the tissues that record and distribute information within a person, and does so by electrical and chemical means.

The nervous system has two distinct parts -- central and peripheral. The central part is made up of the brain and spinal cord. Together they are the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral part of the nervous system is said to be peripheral because it is outside the CNS. The function of the peripheral nervous system is to transmit information back and forth between the CNS and the rest of the body.

The human nervous system contains approximately 10 billion nerve cells. These neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. Neurons consist of the nerve cell body and various extensions from the cell body. These extensions, or processes, are the dendrites (branches off the cell that receive electrical impulses), the axon (the electrical wiring and conduit tube that conducts impulses), and specialized endings (terminal areas to transfer impulses to receivers on other nerves or muscles

nightguard plastic device that covers all of the upper or lower teeth; used to prevent wear caused by tooth grinding during sleep
nitrous oxide a gas used to reduce patient anxiety
Numb Numb or numbness is a loss of the sensation of feeling in an area of the body. Numbness results from damage to, or impaired function of, the nerves that supply the affected area. The function of the nerves may be impaired by numerous causes including some chronic diseases ( diabetes mellitus , thyroid disease, migraine ), trauma , toxins, decreased blood supply due to atherosclerosis or other conditions, electrolyte imbalances, and pressure on the spinal nerves from herniated discs or other diseases of the spine
occlusal surface the chewing surface of the tooth
occlusion how the upper and lower teeth come together
onlay laboratory-produced restoration covering the cusps of a tooth
oral Of or having to do with the mouth
oral and maxillofacial surgeon

a specialist who deals with the diagnosis & surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, and deformities of the mouth, jaws and supporting structures.

oral cavity the mouth
oral hygiene the process of maintaining the cleanliness of the mouth
oral pathologist examines oral tissues for evidence of suspected abnormalities such as cancer.
oral surgery operations on the mouth; for example, extractions, removal of cysts or tumors, and repair of broken jaw bone
orbicularis orbis circular muscle that surrounds the mouth
orthodontics a branch of dentistry dealing with irregularities of the teeth and their correction, by means of braces and retainer
orthodontist designs and applies corrective and supportive appliances, braces, to realign crooked teeth
overdenture denture that fits over tooth roots or dental implants
Pain An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pain has both physical and emotional components. The physical part of pain results from nerve stimulation. Pain may be contained to a discrete area, as in an injury, or it can be more diffuse, as in disorders like fibromyalgia . Pain is mediated by specific nerve fibers that carry the pain impulses to the brain where their conscious appreciation may be modified by many factors.
Pain is also a term specifically used to denote a painful uterine contraction occurring in childbirth. The word "pain" comes from the Latin "poena" meaning a fine, a penalty
palliative treatment treatment that is designed primarily to reduce or eliminate pain
parasthesia loss of sensation in part of the body
parotid gland largest salivary gland
partial removable denture replacing some of the teeth
pediatric dentist provides treatment and care for children from birth through adolescence
periodontal disease Bacterial infections involving bone loss around the teeth. Inflammation and irritation of the gums, which if left untreated, can cause the jawbone and teeth to deteriorate and fall out
periodontal maintenance A series of simple measures performed by a dental professional that helps limit the effects and further development of periodontal disease. Some components of periodontal maintenance include soft tissue examination, plaque removal, and polishing of the teeth
periodontal pockets Toxins in plaque destroy the gum and connective tissues beneath the teeth, forming a pocket (space). As the disease progresses toward the bone, the pocket fills with plaque and infection. If not treated, the bone and connective tissue surrounding the tooth may become so severely damaged that the tooth will fall out or need to be extracted.
periodontal sites The areas around the tooth where deep pockets have formed
periodontist diagnoses and treats diseases of the tissues supporting and surrounding the teeth, especially periodontal, gum, disease

Periodontitis is an advanced form of gum disease in which the tissues and bones that support the teeth are damaged by the buildup of bacterial plaque. If periodontitis is not treated, teeth can become loose and may fall out or need to be removed. Treatment for periodontitis includes a cleaning method called root planing and scaling that removes plaque and tartar buildup both above and below the gum line. Antibiotics may be needed to help get rid of the infection. If gum disease is severe, surgery may be required.

permanent teeth the thirty-two adult teeth
Periradicular Tissues - Normal Normal periradicular tissues will be non-sensitive to percussion and palpation testing. Radiographically, periradicular tissues are normal with an intact lamina dura and a uniform periodontal ligament (PDL) space
Acute periradicular periodontitis Acute periradicular periodontitis occurs when pulpal disease extends into the surrounding periradicular tissues and causes inflammation. However, acute periradicular periodontitis may also occur as the result of occlusal traumatism. The patient will generally complain of discomfort to biting or chewing. Sensitivity to percussion is a hallmark diagnostic test result of acute periradicular periodontitis. Palpation testing may or may not produce a sensitive response. The PDL space may appear normal, widened, or there may be a distinct radiolucency
Chronic periradicular periodontitis When bacteria or bacterial products from a necrotic pulp or pulpless tooth slowly ingress into the periradicular tissues, the patient’s immune system may become involved in a chronic conflict. The resultant inflammatory process causes periradicular bone resorption that manifests as a periradicular radiolucency on the radiograph. Clinically, the patient is asymptomatic. Percussion and palpation testing produce non-sensitive responses
Subacute periradicular periodontitis (chronic periradicular periodontitis with symptoms). The patient will present with mild to moderate symptoms that may include spontaneous pain or discomfort on biting or chewing. The tooth may present with any pulpal diagnosis. Percussion testing produces a mild sensitive response and palpation testing may or may not be sensitive. Clinical symptoms are not as severe as acute periradicular periodontitis. Radiographically, the tooth will present anywhere from a normal periradicular appearance to a distinct radiolucency. These patients must receive endodontic treatment in a timely manner because the condition can quickly progress into acute periradicular periodontitis or an acute periradicular abscess
Acute periradicular abscess In this situation, bacteria have progressed into the periradicular tissues and the patient’s immune response cannot defend against the invasion. It is characterized by rapid onset, spontaneous pain, pus formation, and often swelling of the associated tissues. Depending upon the location of the apices of the tooth and muscle attachments, a swelling will usually develop in the buccal vestibule, on the lingual/palatal, or as a fascial space infection. Percussion testing produces a response that is usually exquisitely sensitive. This exaggerated response can help differentiate between acute periradicular periodontitis and the early stages of acute periradicular abscess. Palpation testing produces a sensitive response. Radiographically, the PDL space may be normal, slightly widened, or demonstrate a distinct radiolucency. This periradicular pathosis can occur with a necrotic pulp or a pulpless tooth that has been partially or definitely endodontically treated if continued bacterial contamination and/or leakage occurs
Chronic periradicular abscess (suppurative periradicular periodontitis). An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by gradual onset, little or no discomfort and intermittent discharge of pus through an associated sinus tract. Clinically, the patient is usually asymptomatic because the sinus tract allows drainage of any exudate from the periradicular tissues. EPT and thermal testing are non-responsive. Percussion and palpation testing usually produce non-sensitive responses. Radiographically, a periradicular lesion is associated with the involved tooth. This entity can also occur with a pulpless tooth that has been partially or definitely endodontically treated if continued bacterial contamination and/or leakage occurs
pit a small defect in the tooth enamel, usually found on the back teeth
placebo a treatment that works because of the patient's belief in it, not because of the actual physical change it produces
Pocket depth The size (depth) of a periodontal pocket, usually measured in millimeters

Soft deposits of bacteria and debris that collect on teeth. Plaque is a clear, sticky substance produced by the mouth. Plaque contains bacteria that produce acids and other chemicals that can damage the teeth, gums, and surrounding bone if the plaque is not removed. Plaque forms constantly, but it can be controlled by proper brushing and flossing.

pontic a false tooth mounted on a bridge
porcelain crowns a porcelain cap which covers the crown (that portion above the gumline) of the tooth to repair it or change the shape and/or color
porcelain inlay or onlay a tooth-colored filling, made of porcelain
porcelain veneer

a thin layer of porcelain bonded to the front and top of a front tooth to repair or change the color and/or shape


a thin metal rod inserted into the root of a tooth after root canal therapy; provides retention for a "core" which is a buildup of material that replaces the lost tooth structure

post-core a post and a buildup of material that replaces the lost tooth structure
post-crown single structure that combines post-core and crown
probe An instrument like a ruler that the dental professional uses to measure pocket depth. A probe measures in millimeters
prognosis the probable outcome of treatment
prophylaxis A standard dental cleaning of the teeth that helps maintain good oral hygiene and prevents the development of infection
prosthesis an artificial replacement for a body part
prosthodontist a dentist who specializes in restoring teeth, replacing missing teeth with bridges and dentures, and maintaining proper occlusion
pulp the nerves, blood vessels and connective tissue inside a tooth
pulp - normal A normal pulp is symptom free and will normally be responsive to the electric pulp tester (EPT). When evaluated by thermal testing, the normal pulp produces a positive response that is mild and subsides immediately when the stimulus is removed
Pulpless tooth A tooth from which the pulp has been removed. For example, a tooth with previous pulpotomy/pulpectomy/root canal debridement or previous root canal therapy should be recorded as a pulpless tooth for the pulpal diagnosis
pulp chamber the center or innermost portion of the tooth containing the pulp. Also knowl as pulp canal
PULPAL DIAGNOSIS Normal pulp - A clinical diagnostic category in which the pulp is symptom free and normally responsive to vitality testing.
Reversible pulpitis : A clinical diagnosis based upon subjective and objective findings indicating that the inflammation should resolve and the pulp return to normal
Irreversible pulpitis:A clinical diagnosis based on subjective and objective findings indicating that the vital inflamed pulp is incapable of healing.
Additional descriptions: Symptomatic,Lingering thermal pain, spontaneous pain, referred pain
Asymptomatic: No clinical symptoms but inflammation produced by caries,caries excavation, trauma, etc.
Pulp necrosis: A clinical diagnostic category indicating death of the dental pulp. The pulp is non-responsive to vitality testing.
Previously Treated: A clinical diagnostic category indicating that the tooth has been endodontically treated and the canals are obturated with various filling materials, other that intracanal medicaments.
Previously Initiated Therapy: A clinical diagnostic category indicating that the tooth has been previously treated by partial endodontic therapy (e.g. pulpotomy, pulpectomy).
Pulpal necrosis Necrosis is a histologic term that denotes death of the pulp. Teeth with total pulpal necrosis are usually asymptomatic unless inflammation has progressed to the periradicular tissues. The pulp will not respond to the EPT and if using a digital EPT, this result should be reported as no response (NR) over 80. The pulp will not respond to thermal tests. The dental record entry for this pulpal diagnosis should be pulpal necrosis
pulpectomy total removal of the pulp in children's teeth
public health dentist is concerned with the dental health needs of entire communities, and can design and administer large-scale prevention and dental care programs by compiling and analyzing statistics
pulp cap a medicated covering over a small area of exposed pulp
pulpitis inflammation of the pulp; a common cause of a toothache
pulpitis - reversible Caries, cracks, restorative procedures or trauma may cause a pulp to become inflamed. The patient’s chief complaint is usually of an exaggerated response to thermal stimulus but once the stimulus is removed, the discomfort does not linger. EPT results are responsive
pulpitis - irreversible If the inflammatory process progresses, irreversible pulpitis can develop. Patients may have a history of spontaneous pain and complain of an exaggerated response to hot or cold that lingers after the stimulus is removed. EPT results are usually responsive. The involved tooth will often present with a history of an extensive restoration and/or caries.
In certain cases of irreversible pulpitis, the patient may arrive at the dental clinic sipping a glass of ice water or applying ice to the affected area. In these cases, cold actually alleviates the patient’s pain as the dental pulp has developed allodynia and is hyperalgesic. Normal body temperature is now causing the nociceptors in the pulp to discharge.10 Removal of the cold causes return of symptoms and can be used as a diagnostic test.
Irreversible pulpitis can also present as an asymptomatic condition. Internal resorption and hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp) are examples of asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis
pulpotomy partial removal of the pulp
pyorrhea common term for gum disease
radiosurgery surgery technique that uses radio waves to produce a pressureless, bloodless incision; can also be used to heat bleaching agents
reimplantation return to mouth of tooth/teeth lost through trauma
reline plastic buildup of denture to compensate for bone loss (usually accomplished in conjunction with a dental laboratory
resin plastic material used in bonding, restorative and replacement procedures
resistance A situation that occurs when bacteria no longer respond to the effects of antibiotic treatment
restoration the replacement part or portion restored on a damaged tooth
restorative dentistry process of restoring missing, damaged or diseased teeth to normal form and function, performed by general dentists
retained root root remaining in jaw after tooth is extracted or broken off
root The part of the tooth that is not covered by enamel.Tooth structure that connects the tooth to the jaw
root canal common term for root canal therapy, also the interior space of the tooth root
root canal therapy process of removing pulp of a tooth and filling it with an inert material
root planing A dental procedure used to remove plaque and calculus from the root of the tooth. Planing smoothes the root surfaces to promote healing
root resection removal of root of a tooth while retaining the crown
root canal common term for root canal therapy, also the interior space of the tooth root
rubber dam soft latex sheet used to protect one or more teeth from moisture and to keep materials from falling to the back of the throat
SRP Scaling and root planing (SRP): Cleaning teeth to remove plaque and calculus above and below the gum line, and smoothing the roots of the teeth to promote healing.
saliva clear fluid in the mouth containing water, enzymes, bacteria, mucus, viruses, blood cells and undigested food particles
saliva ejector suction tube placed in the mouth to remove saliva
salivary glands located under tongue and in cheeks, produce saliva
scaling A dental procedure (meticulous removal) used to scrape bacterial plaque and calculus from the surfaces of the tooth.
sealants located under tongue and in cheeks, produce saliva
salivary glands plastic material bonded in the grooves and pits of back teeth for the prevention of decay
secondary dentin produced by the pulp in response to tooth irritation
Sensitivity 1.In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sensitivity training, training in small groups to develop a sensitive awareness and understanding of oneself and of ones relationships with others.
2. In disease epidemiology, the ability of a system to detect epidemics and other changes in disease occurrence.
3. In screening for a disease, the proportion of persons with the disease who are correctly identified by a screening test.
4. In the definition of a disease, the proportion of persons with the disease who are correctly identified by defined criteria
Systemically Means of delivering medicine through the bloodstream to reach the organs
Sjögren's syndrome

is a disease in which the immune system attacks the body's moisture-producing glands. This disease may cause the tear and saliva glands to become scarred and damaged, and can cause exceptional dryness in the eyes and mouth.
Sjögren's syndrome is most common in women who are older than 40.
People with Sjögren's syndrome usually have a dry mouth that makes swallowing difficult and dry eyes that cause eye pain. In severe cases, they may have scarring of the covering of the eye (cornea). Sjögren's syndrome may also cause fatigue, joint pain, and problems with the function of vital organs.
Although there currently is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, treatment of symptoms can offer relief for many people. For example, artificial tears can be used to moisten the eyes, and mouth lubricants and saliva substitutes can help to moisten the mouth and throat.

sleep apnea the periodic interruption or delay in breathing during sleep
space maintainer dental device that holds the space lost through premature loss of baby teeth
special patient person with disability who requires particular dental care needs
splint to connect two or more teeth so they function as a stronger single structure
Strep throat

Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the tissues in the back of the throat (pharynx) and the tonsils or adenoids. The tissues become irritated and inflamed, causing a sudden, severe sore throat
Symptoms of strep throat include a sore throat with:
* Fever of 101° F (38.3° C) or higher.
* Pain and difficulty swallowing.
* White or yellow spots or coating on the throat and tonsils.
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
In children, strep throat may also cause body aches, headache, stomachache, nausea, vomiting, or listlessness. Strep throat does not occur with cold symptoms, such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, or cough.
While strep throat usually resolves on its own in a few days, it is treated with antibiotics to prevent complications, such as rheumatic fever, from occurring.

supernumerary tooth extra tooth
tartar also called calculus, a hard deposit containing bacteria and minerals that adheres to teeth. Hardened dental plaque on teeth, that is usually rough, hard, and porous
Tear A drop of the salty secretion of the lacrimal glands which serves to moisten the conjunctiva and cornea
tmd temperomandibular disorder; term given to condition characterized by facial pain and restricted ability to open/move the jaw
tmj the temporomandibular joint, the point where the lower jaw attaches to the upper jaw
tmj disorder term given to condition characterized by facial pain and restricted ability to open/move the jaw
third molars wisdom teeth
third-party provider insurance company, union, government agency that pays all or a part of cost of dental treatment
Tissue A tissue in medicine is not like a piece of tissue paper. It is a broad term that is applied to any group of cells that perform specific functions. A tissue in medicine need not form a layer. Thus,The bone marrow is a tissue;

Connective tissue consists of cells that make up fibers in the framework supporting other body tissues; and Lymphoid tissue is the part of the body's immune system that helps protect it from bacteria and other foreign entities.


The structures within the mouth that allow for biting and chewing. Teeth have different shapes, depending on their purpose. The sharp canine and frontal teeth allow for biting, while the flattened, thick molars in the back of the mouth provide grinding surfaces for masticating food. All teeth have essentially the same structure: a hard crown above the gum line, which is attached to two or four roots by a portion called the neck. The roots are covered with a very thin layer of bone, and keep the tooth embedded in the bones of the jaw. The exposed exterior of the tooth is covered with tough enamel. Under the enamel is a thick layer of dentin, and in the center is the pulp. Blood vessels and nerves are found within the pulp

tooth bud early embryonic structure that becomes a tooth
tooth decay

the combination of bacteria and food causes tooth decay. A clear, sticky substance called plaque that contains bacteria is always forming on your teeth and gums. As the bacteria feed on the sugars in the food you eat, they make acids. The acids attack the teeth for 20 minutes or more after eating. Over a period of time, these acids destroy tooth enamel, resulting in tooth decay. Tooth decay is the process that results in a cavity (dental caries).If not treated, tooth decay can cause infection and tooth loss.

tooth whitening a process to lighten the color of teeth
torus common bony growth on the palate or lower jaw
transplant placing a natural tooth in the empty socket of another tooth
trauma injury caused by a blow, chemicals, temperature extremes, or poor tooth alignment
trench mouth gum disease characterized by severe mouth sores and loss of tissue. See ANUG.
unerupted tooth a tooth that has not pushed through the gum and assumed its correct position in the jaw
veneer plastic or porcelain facing bonded directly to a tooth to improve its appearance. See laminate.
wisdom teeth the third set of molars that usually erupt when a person is 18-25 years of age
xerostomia decrease in production of saliva
Protaper flaring

6 yr old Empress

Cvek pulpotomy

Middle mesial

Endo misdiagnosis

MTA retrofill

Resin core

BW importance

Bicuspid tooth

Necrotic #8 treatment

Finding MB2 / MB3

Deep in a canal

Broken file retrieval

Molar cases

Pushed over apex

MB2 and palatal canal

Long lower third

Veneer cases

CT Implant surgury

Weird Anatomy

Apical trifurcation

Canal and Ultrasonics

Cotton stuffed chamber

Pulp floor sandblasting

Silver point removal

Difficult acute curve

Marked swelling

5 canaled premolar

Sealer overextension

Complex anatomy

Secondary caries

Zygomatic arch

Confluent mesials

LL 1st molar (#19)

Shaping vs Cleaning

First bicuspid

In Vivo mesial view

Inaccesible canals

Premolar 45

Ortho and implant


Lateral incisor


Churning irrigant

Cold lateral

Tipped to lingual

Acute pulpitis images

Middle distal canal

Silver point

Crown preparation

Epiphany healing

Weird anatomy

Dual Xenon

Looking for MB2

Upper molar resorption

Acute apical abcess

Finding MB2

Gingival inflammation

Irreversible pulpitis

AG BU ortho band

TF Files

using TF files

Broken bur

Warm technique

Restorative prognosis

Tooth # 20 and #30

Apical third

3 canal premolar

Severe curvature

Interesting anatomy

Chamber floor

Zirconia crown

Dycal matrix

Cracked tooth

Tooth structure loss

Multiplanar curves