Treatment of a horizontal root fracture II
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- www.rxroots.com photographs courtesy: Marga
From: Marga Ree
Sent: Wednesday, March 23, 2005 9:32 PM
Subject: [roots] 1 year follow-up of two horizontal root fractures
I have posted this case before, but wanted to add this one to
the discussion whether or not to remove the apical
fragments. In this case I left them in situ, but had to do surgery
to resolve the patient's symptoms.- Marga
This 21 year old man was involved in a bar fight. His dentist made
a splint and did an attempt to perform rct, but he
was not able to instrument the apical parts. (page 1) He referred
the patient to me.
11 (#8) and 21(#9) horizontal root fractures
•21 (#9) uncomplicated crown fracture
•12 (#7) apical periodontitis
First thing I did is remove the splint, C&S 11 and 21, place
Ca(OH)2 and make a filling of composite in # 21. After 1 month
I obturated # 11 and 21 completely with MTA, 12 with gp and AH26
After 3 months he returned for a follow-up, and complained about
sensitivity upon biting and palpation of # 11. There was a pocket
buccal of # 11 till the fracture level. I decide to raise a flap
and clean the fracture gaps. I removed the granulation tissue with
a lot of embedded root fragments and extruded MTA.
I applied Emdogain, because I was hoping to prevent apical
downgrowth of the epithelium. (page 3 and 4)
Rad on page 4 is immediate follow-up after surgery
1 year follow-up (page 4 and 5): Probing depths of 2 mm, no
sensitivity, patient can function without any problems,
radiographs show healing. - Marga
Fantastic Marga ...............I am sure in most parts of the
world the patient would have lost his tooth and would now
be having a prosthesis.
You removed the initial splint placed by the refg.dentist and
the clinical images don't show a fresh splint So how did
you manage to prevent the mobility during function?? - Sachin
The splint was already 4 weeks in place, and was applied in
a way that it didn't serve it's purpose, to put it mildly.
It was more a source of plaque retention and tissue irritation.
In addition, according to this paper of Cvek and Andreasen,
there is no benefit of splinting for more than 4 weeks. I
adjusted the teeth out of direct and excursive occlusion.- Marga
Dent Traumatol. 2004 Aug;20(4):203-11.
Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures.
2. Effect of treatment factors such as treatment delay, repositioning,
splinting type and period and antibiotics.
Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM, Mejare I, Cvek M.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,
University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
This is the second part of a retrospective study of 400 root-fractured
permanent incisors. In this article, the effect of various treatment
procedures is analyzed. Treatment delay, i.e. treatment later than
24 h after injury, did not change the root fracture healing pattern,
healing with hard tissue between fragments (HH1), interposition of bone
and/or periodontal ligament (PDL) or pulp necrosis (NEC). When initial
displacement did not exceed 1 mm, optimal repositioning appeared to
significantly enhance both the likelihood of pulpal healing and hard
tissue repair (HH1). Significant differences in healing were found among
the different splinting techniques. The lowest frequency of healing
was found with cap splints and the highest with fiberglass or Kevlar
splints. The latter splinting procedure showed almost the same healing
result as non-splinting. Comparison between non-splinting and splinting
for non-displaced teeth was found to reveal no benefit from splinting.
With respect to root fractures with displacement, too few cases were
available for analysis. No beneficial effect of splinting periods
greater than 4 weeks could be demonstrated. The administration of
antibiotics had the paradoxical effect of promoting both HH1 and NEC.
No explanation could be found. It was concluded that, optimal
repositioning seems to favor healing. Furthermore, the chosen splinting
method appears to be related to healing of root fractures, with a
preference to pulp healing and healing fusion of fragments to a
certain flexibility of the splint and possibly also non-traumatogenic
splint application. Splinting for more than 4 weeks was not found to
influence the healing pattern. A certain treatment delay (a few days)
appears not to result in inferior healing. The role of antibiotics upon
fracture healing is questionable. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.
Luckily I had a patient today with an accident injury and a horizontal
Root fracture in 11 and a crown fracture in 21( rad.image attached).
There is 1degree mobility in 11 and the perio probing is 1mm buccal...
.....................What do u suggest?? My treatment planning is split
for 4 weeks and observe and if required endo on the coronal segment ( when?
is what you suggest).
Two questions regd this
1: How soon should I look for pulpal symptoms .If the healing of this
horizontal fracture takes a long time what are
the chances of the appearance of pulpal symptoms during this healing phase?
2: If the coronal pulp starts degeneration what would be the clinical
symptoms and what would be the pulp tester readings ?
Anymore suggestions that I am not asking for are also most welcome......
.....:-) - Sachin
Hereby a slide of my friend and colleague Michiel de Cleen on the
occurence of pulp necrosis in horizontal root fractures, which is
less than 30%. So usually the best approach is to do nothing, and
to follow-up very carefully, because there is a big chance for the
tooth to maintain vital. If the coronal segment becomes non-vital,
then perform an endo in the coronal part. You will see the usual
signs, e.g. discoloration, radiolucency on fracture level, sinus
tract, symptoms etc. The apical segment will show often pulp canal
obliteration after a while.- Marga
I forgot to say that if there is no displacement of the coronal
segment, you can also refrain from splinting. See Andreasen et al:
Comparison between non-splinting and splinting for non-displaced
teeth was found to reveal no benefit from splinting.
Good luck, Marga
Thanks Marga. I have decided to put a splint considering the age
of the patient ( 23 yrs ) as a precaution I decided in favour of
the splint. - Sachin