Attached I have lined up images that are 10x10, 20x20, 50x50, 70x70, 100x100, 250x250, 500x500 pixels in size and another attachment of a series of images that are all the same size showing the relative information that those images give. The point is that when you look at an image that is 10x10 you have 100 bits of information. When that image is 100x100 then you have 10,000 bits of information. If you have an image that is 1,000x1,000 then you have 1,000,000 (or as illustrated 700x700 giving 490000). - Bob ROOTSread more.....
The XXXII Indian society of Periodontology
conference will be held from 28-30th December 2007 at Davangere,
From: Harald Prestegaard
A quick cure for separation anxiety
A 30-minute posterior crown for the
ONE-APPOINTMENT DIRECT BRIDGE
Mark, I know you have a large practice and even if the iCat stayed at the 180,000 figure you could afford it. I on the other hand, up heah at the terminus of the appalachian trail, have trouble seeing the day when virtually all orthos have an iCat or equivalent in the office. I think for most of us out to at least the 20 yr mark, we will continue to rely on alginate.
Another issue that I don't hear many people talk about is the cost involved in all of this. do we pass that along to the patient or do we absorb it partially or do we become so much more efficient (no impressions) that we eat the whole thing for routine records. In general, the good old USA is becoming poorer as the world economy shifts eastward. You can see what is happening: orthos are using better appliances and treating in less time. That usually means a higher fee paid over a shorter time period. How does all this work for the patient's ability to pay? - charlie ruff
Basically, we are right around the corner from using the CT scan for our models, appliances, etc. It will be a bit before the labs are on board but using the scan for indirect bonding, 3-D models, etc is not out of our reach. The software has been written, we just have to wait for the price to come down from $180K. I have decided to wait on both the price and the software to work out the bugs. The difference between the higher resolution and lower resolution is not a great difference in terms of exposure but the patient does have to sit still longer 30-40 sec versus 10-20 sec. Dental impressions will be a thing of the past over the next 10-15 years. - MARK (Source: ESCO Digest)
Systemic Antibiotics in Periodontitis
From: Walter Loesche
Date: March 21, 2007 10:51:30 AM EDT
Subject: antibiotics in moderate/severe infections
I don't know. My guess is that is goes against two powerful myths and the failure of dental and dental hygiene schools to
educate their students. The myths are
1. The myth of the macho dentist. The few periodontists that i have talked to about this issue, assure me that they can obtain the desired result simple by scaling and root planing. Their skills are such that they do not need any additional help. Many hygienists also subscribe to this line of thinking. But we have shown in 4 studies that metronidazole plus S&RP is statistically better than Placebp plus S&RP, the standard of care. Our data indicated that it may be unethical to deny patients the benefits of antimicrobial therapy, especially in the light of the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) defining periodontal disease as "serious infections".
2. The myth of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This is perhaps the most widely cited objection to the use of antibiotics in
periodontal disease. Yet after years of publicity, no one to my knowledge has shown an increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria in the clinical setting, especially to metronidazole.
The dental schools and hygiene schools do not teach students to use antibiotics to treat periodontal disease. In fact
just the opposite. Don't use them. The AAP has indicated in its guidelines that antibiotics are not needed. This provides a strong legal disincentive to use antibiotics, if the "authorities" in the field discourage their use. In regard to the amox/metro combo, there is no scientific evidence, ie. double blind, random assignment studies to support this usage. In most, if not all instances, metronidazole alone would do the job. So another myth is being perpetrated, that of shot-gun antibiotic therapy.
In response to Dr. Loesche's comment:
<<2. The myth of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This is perhaps the most widely cited objection to the use of antibiotics in periodontal disease. Yet after years of publicity, no one to my knowledge has shown an increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria in the clinical setting, especially to metronidazole.>>
Maybe not so far amongst periodontal bacteria. But if the antibiotic is administered systemically, what about the risk of generating metronidazole resistant gram-negative bacteria elsewhere in the body? Specifically, metronidazole resistant Heliobacter pylori, a well documented etiological agent in stomach cancer.
Two references to this.
1) From a UK Parliament report:
“Memorandum by the Association of Clinical Oral Microbiologists ........Considerable use of the antibiotic metronidazole is made in the treatment of periodontal disease and this probably accounts for the reason why dental prescriptions of metronidazole represent the largest number of prescriptions for this antibiotic in the community. The widespread use of metronidazole may have contributed to the increased burden of metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori, a well documented aetiological agent in stomach ancer.”
2. Source: http://www.upwardquest.com/guided.html
“St. Louis, April 13 -- Scientists in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and St. Louis, Mo., have discovered why the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcer disease, is sensitive to metronidazole, a critical component of the leading H. pylori therapy. They also have determined how the bacteria becomes resistant to this drug. H. pylori infects more than half the world's people and is a major early risk factor for stomach cancer.The researchers' findings also raise concern about a possible link between the drug and stomach cancer in people infected with H. pylori. "The real danger lurks when a person takes metronidazole without the complete complement of drugs that eradicate this bacterium," says Paul S. Hoffman, Ph.D., professor of microbiology and immunology and medicine at Dalhousie University Medical School in Halifax. "When metronidazole is taken alone, it can be activated by one of the bacterium's enzymes to produce hydroxylamine, a mutagen and cancer-causing chemical."
Goodwin A, Kersulyte D, Sisson G, Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJO, Berg DE, Hoffman PS. Metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to null mutations in a gene (rdxA) that encodes an oxygen-insensitive NADP nitroreductase. Molecular Microbiology, 28(2), April 14, 1998.- Stephen Millar (Source: Periotherpist group)